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ACCU DYNE TEST ™ Bibliography

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2747. Allen, R., “How to obtain good adhesion of extruded polypropylene to film and foil substrates by using ozone and primers,” in 2006 PLACE Conference Proceedings, 1354-1359, TAPPI Press, Sep 2006.

2748. Culbertson, E., “Metal adhesion to PET film,” in 2007 PLACE Conference Proceedings, 243-246, TAPPI Press, Sep 2007.

2749. Wolf, R.A., and A.C. Sparavigna, “Modifying surface features: Extrusion coating and laminating,” in 2007 PLACE Conference Proceedings, 881-884, TAPPI Press, Sep 2007.

Extrusion coating, lamination and film lamination give rise to complex manufacturing techniques which allow a converter to make high-performance packaging films. The physical properties and the related performance characteristics of composites obtained by extrusion coating and lamination can be comparable to that produced by film lamination. This is not surprising since many of the major components involved by these techniques in the production of the final composites are also the same. The paper examines how the use of ozone combined with corona discharge compares to ozone combined with atmospheric plasma relative to seal strength for these composite film constructions, and suggests a direction for future improvements in seal strength.

2750. Wolf, R.A., “Clear barrier at atmospheric pressure - the second phase,” in 2007 PLACE Conference Proceedings, 1271-1276, TAPPI Press, Sep 2007.

2751. Smallshaw, J., “Corona treating and the printing process,” in 1999 Polymers, Laminations and Coatings Conference Proceedings, TAPPI Press, Sep 1999.

2752. Ping-yi Tsai, P., “Mechanism of corona electrostatic charging of nonwoven webs,” in 1994 Nonwovens Conference Proceedings, TAPPI Press, 1994.

2754. Kuusipalo, J., and A. Savolainen, “Adhesion in extrusion coating with polypropylene,” in 1993 Polymers, Coatings and Laminations Conference Proceedings, 469-478, TAPPI Press, Aug 1993.

2755. Jadon, N., and M.D. Nolan, “Exploring the benefits of newly developed adhesion promotion methods,” in 1998 Polymers, Laminations and Coatings Conference Proceedings, 1109-1118, TAPPI Press, Sep 1998.

2756. Lahti, J., “The role of surface properties in digital printing on extrusion coated paperboard,” in Proceedings of the 9th TAPPI Advanced Coating Fundamentals Symposium, TAPPI Press, 2006.

2757. Weber, R., “Saturation phenomena in conjunction with corona treatment on different substrates,” in 2005 European PLACE Conference Proceedings, TAPPI Press, 2005.

2758. Lahti, J., “The effects of corona and flame treatment II: PE-HD and PP coated papers,” in 12th TAPPI European PLACE Conference Proceedings, 278-314, TAPPI Press, May 2009.

The most important function of a packaging material is to shield the product inside the package. Extrusion coated papers and paperboards are generally used in various consumer packages like food, medical and cosmetic packages. Extrusion coatings give a barrier against water, water vapour, aroma, grease, oxygen, etc. In addition to barrier properties, heat sealability and printability are important properties in packaging applications. From the point of view of printing, the dense and impervious structure of extrusion coatings is challenging: printing inks and toners do not penetrate into the coatings. The durability of the printed image is significant, because the image must withstand various converting operations when the package is constructed. The most common method for obtaining good ink or toner adhesion is to oxidise the surface. Surface treatments are used to change the chemical composition, increase surface energy, modify surface morphology and topography, or remove contaminants and weak boundary layers. Two widely used methods are corona discharge treatment and flame treatment. These processes generally cause physical and chemical changes in a thin surface layer without affecting the bulk properties. Treatments will increase surface energy and also provide polar molecular groups necessary for good bonds between ink/toner and polymer molecules. In addition to printability, surface treatments also affect the sealing properties, i.e. initial heat sealing temperature, initial hot tack temperature, sealing window and seal strength of extrusion coatings. Both the sealability of packaging material and the tightness of the seal are critical points in the manufacturing process of packages and of the final package. The printability must be obtained without losing the sealability properties. In the first part of this research (TAPPI European PLACE 2007), surface energy, printability and sealability of low density polyethylene (PE-LD) coated paperboard after flame and corona treatments were studied. In this second part of the study, the research is extended to other polyolefins, i.e. high-density polyethylene (PE-HD) and polypropylene (PP). The surface chemistry is evaluated with contact angle measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical profilometry are used to study the topographical and morphological changes on the surfaces. Furthermore, the heat sealing and hot tack properties, and water vapour barrier properties of the extrusion coatings are evaluated. The aim of this study is also to evaluate the printability of the extrusion coatings and to map out the role of surface modification in print quality formation. This study has concentrated on digital printing, particularly on the dry toner-based electrophotographic printing process. Flame treatment decreases the contact angle of water on PE-LD, PE-HD and PP coated papers more than corona treatment, but the lowest contact angle is obtained when the treatments are used simultaneously (i.e. co-effect of the treatments). Flame treatment deteriorates the sealability properties of PE-LD coated paper, whereas corona treatment improves sealability for example by decreasing the minimum heat sealing temperature. The sealability properties of PE-HD and PP coated papers are improved not only by corona treatment, but also by flame treatment. Flame treatment significantly improves the water vapour barrier of PEs. Where printability is concerned, it can be noticed that all the treatments improve rub-off resistance with PEs. With PE-LD flame is the most effective, and with PE-HD corona. With PP, the co-treatment gives the best result. Morphological changes in micro- and nano- scale were most observed on the flame treated PE-LD surface, whereas the electret phenomenon was observed on PE-LD, PE-HD and PP surfaces only after corona treatment.

2759. Arlt, G., “Treatment electrode topology - some secrets for success,” in 9th TAPPI European PLACE Conference Proceedings, TAPPI Press, 2003.

2760. Campbell, R.N., and D. Wolters, “Improved barrier properties with metallized films from corona process improvements and from copolymer characteristics,” in 1998 Polymers, Coatings and Laminations Conference Proceedings, 385-396, TAPPI Press, Sep 1998 (also in J. Plastic Film and Sheeting, V. 16, p. 108-123, Apr 2000).

Vastly improved film surface tension values were achieved using elevated corona treater roll temperatures in the production of BOPP film with a coextruded skin layer designed for subsequent metallization. These film surface tension values did not significantly decrease with time. A new propylene/butene-1 copolymer was coextruded as the metallizing layer in the BOPP film construction. When metallized, this film provided improved barrier to water vapor transmission by a factor of 5:1 when compared to a similar film produced with a propylene/ethylene copolymer as the metallizing layer. Stringent analysis of the surface of the propylene/butene copolymer revealed that the unique smoothness of its surface enhanced the barrier properties of the film after metallizing. The surface of the ethylene/propylene copolymer was much rougher.

2761. Sherman, P.B., “Technical tips on corona treatment on polymeric films,” in 1997 Polymers, Laminations and Coatings Conference Proceedings, 111-120, TAPPI Press, Aug 1997.

2762. Eckert, W., “Comparison of corona and flame treatment of polymer film, foil and paperboard,” in 2005 European PLACE Conference Proceedings, TAPPI Press, 2005.

2763. Markgraf, D.A., “Corona treatment: An adhesion promoter for water-based & UV-cured printing,” in 1996 New Printing Technologies Symposium Proceedings, TAPPI Press, 1996.

2764. Cramm, R.H., “The influence of processing conditions on the hot tack of polyethylene extrusion coatings,” in 1988 Polymers, Laminations and Coatings Conference Proceedings, 35-39, TAPPI Press, 1988 (also in TAPPI J., V. 72, p. 185-189, Mar 1989).

2779. Gupta, B.S., and H.S. Whang, “Surface wetting and energy properties of cellulose acetate, polyester, and polypropylene fibers,” in 1998 Nonwovens Conference and Trade Fair, 65-78, TAPPI Press, 1998.

Using a dynamic wetting force device, involving a sensitive Wilhelmy balance, surface wetting behaviors of polyester, polypropylene, and cellulose acetate fibers, the last two in several different sizes and cross-sectional shapes, were examined. Assessed were the values of the advancing and the receding contact angles and the work of adhesion with water as the fluid. Conducting tests with deionized water and methylene iodide allowed us to assess the value of the total surface energy along with the values of the polar and the dispersion components of it. In a limited number of tests, the surface properties of polyester and polypropylene films were also determined and compared with those of the fibers. The results generally showed that the energy was largely dispersive, hysteresis in contact angles was low, and while the fiber size and cross-sectional shape did not influence the contact angles or the energy, the surface roughness and crystallinity played significant roles.

2782. Etzler, F.M., M. Buche, J.F. Bobalek, and M.A. Weiss, “Surface free energy of paper and inks: Printability issues,” in 1995 Papermakers Conference Proceedings, 383-394, TAPPI Press, 1995.

2785. Seppanen, R., M. Sundin, A. Swerin, and B. Brandner, “Relation between surface energy, topography, wettability and detailed surface chemistry by spectroscopy for coated printing papers,” in 2008 Advanced Coating Fundamentals Symposium, TAPPI Press, 2008.

2788. Rebros, M., P.D. Fleming, and M.K. Joyce, “UV-inks, substrates and wetting,” in 2006 Coating & Graphic Arts Conference, TAPPI Press, 2006.

Presently, it is desirable that one type of ink be suitable for printing on various substrates with different properties. Hence, the emphasis on new models and methods of printability prediction is necessary. The main objective of this work was to study and find correlation between physical properties of printing ink and substrate and finally how these properties can affect printability. For this purpose, contact angle measurement, surface tension measurement, rheology, and various methods for surface characterization of substrates were used.

2790. Tietje, A., “Fifteen years of ozone treatment in extrusion coating,” in 1987 Polymers, Laminations and Coatings Conference Proceedings, 221-224, TAPPI Press, Aug 1987.

3037. Cheney, G., and R.T.E. Sylvester, “Factors affecting adhesion in the extrusion coating process,” in 1998 Polymers, Laminations and Coatings Conference Proceedings, 1095-1100, TAPPI Press, Sep 1998.

3038. Bohra, H., P. Fleming, and M. Joyce, “Surfaces energy of coated paper: effect of calendering consitions and relative humidity,” in Proceedings of the Paper Con '09 Conference, 1987-2004, TAPPI Press, 2009.

Surface energy (1) of a substrate plays a vital role in determination of surface characteristics in terms of interactions with liquid phases, such as inks. The polar and dispersive components of surface energy are employed so as to estimate the interaction of a substrate with polar and non-polar liquids. This study involves the determination of dependence of surface energy of coated paper on various calendering conditions and effect of post-calendering environmental conditions, such as relative humidity, on surface energy, which is of high importance in estimation of ink-substrate interactions and so as to interpret various print attributes. A laboratory-scale cylindrical coater has been used to coat paper sheets with different coating formulations and a laboratory-scale soft-nip calender has been used with different pressure and temperature combinations, so as to generate a series of coated paper samples, which were further conditioned at different environmental conditions by varying the levels of relative humidity. The surface energy determinations were made on these samples by measuring the contact angle of liquids with different polar and dispersive natures.

2496. Ala-Kuha, A., “The influence of surface treatment on the polyolefin coating (Master's thesis),” Tampere University of Technology, Nov 2011.

2579. Tuominen, M., “Adhesion in LDPE coated paperboard (Lic. thesis),” Tampere University of Technology, 2007.

2581. Lahti, J., “Dry toner-based electrophotographic printing on extrusion coated paperboard (PhD thesis),” Tampere University of Technology, 2005.

2871. Rong, X., and M. Keif, “A study of PLA printability with flexography,” Presented at 59th Annual Technical Association of Graphic Arts Technical Conference Proceedings, Mar 2007.

952. Liebel, G., “Plasma activation: Industrial technology for large-scale treatment of polypropylene, polyethylene and polypropylene/ethylene-propylene terpolymer (EPDM) parts,” Technics Plasma, 0.

167. Ikada, Y., and Y. Uyama, Lubricating Polymer Surfaces, Technomic, Jan 1993.

169. Inagaki, N., Plasma Surface Modification and Plasma Polymerization, Technomic, Mar 1996.

426. Boenig, H.V., ed., Advances in Low-Temperature Plasma Chemistry, Technology, Applications, Technomic, 1988.

457. Miller, A., “Unit operation 1 - surface treatment of substrates,” in Converting for Flexible Packaging, 23-34, Technomic, 1994.

856. de Mendez, M., J.C. Boeda, G. Legeay, J.C. Brosse, and P. Simon, “Low temperature plasma modification of polysiloxanes,” in Advances in Low-Temperature Plasma Chemistry, Technology, Applications, Boenig, H.V., ed., 229-242, Technomic, 1988.

857. Zhanxun, C., C. Jie, and W. Zhizhong, “ESCA characterization of plasma-polymerized tetrafluoroethylene,” in Advances in Low-Temperature Plasma Chemistry, Technology, Applications, Boenig, H.V., ph.d, ed., 265-274, Technomic, 1988.

896. Tomasino, C., J.J. Cuomo, and C.B. Smith, “Plasma treatments of textiles,” in The Fifth Annual International Conference on Textile Coating and Laminating, W.C. Smith, ed., Technomic, Nov 1995.

1714. Markgraf, D.A., Surface Treatment of Plastics: Technology and Applications, Technomic, 1996.

646. Lunkenheimer, K., “Problems involved in the practical performance of surface tension measurement of surfactant solutions by using the ring tensiometer,” Tenside Surfactants Detergents, 19, 272+, (May 1982).

1632. Dai, L., and D. Xu, “Polyethylene surface enhancement by corona and chemical co-treatment,” Tetrahedron Letters, 60, 1005-1010, (Apr 2019).

Corona and chemical treatment worked cooperatively for increasing and stabilizing the polyethylene film surface energy. Gentle and varied corona discharge treatment conditions were applied for each polyethylene film to reach 40 dynes/cm. A rather low blending amount of additive could stabilize the film surface energy obviously. Compared with neat PE film, of which the surface energy decreased to 36 dynes/cm at the 12th day, films blended with 1000 ppm A7-OH or PE-PEG 4k -PE showed stable surface energy (36–38 dynes/cm) over 150 days. The influence of industrial applied slipping agent was investigated as well. Morphological and chemical changes were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). The surface energy was determined by the dyne pens. Mechanism investigation of hydrophilization and hydrophobic recovery processes showed that proper crystallization behavior and enough C[dbnd]O groups on the film surface guarantee satisfactory stability of the surface energy.

190. Kawese, T., M. Uchita, T. Fujii, and M. Minagawa, “Acrylic acid grafted polyester surface: surface free energies, FT-IR (ATR), and ESCA characterization,” Textile Research J., 61, 146-152, (1991).

The surface of polyester grafted with acrylic acid has been characterized using contact angle measurements of a two-liquid phase system and FT-IR and ESCA spectroscopy as a function of the concentration of acrylic acid on grafting. The COOH groups on the polymer surface influence only the polar component γs p of surface energy and not the dispersive one γs d. Both the FT-IR and ESCA characterizations, showing the transformation of COOH to COONa by alkaline treatment, provide information with a high degree of surface sensitivity, comparable to that of contact angle measurements. The relative area ratios of the COONa peak to the COOR peak by FT-IR ( Asurface) and of the Na1s peak to the C1s peak by ESCA are linearly correlated to γsp.


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