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ACCU DYNE TEST ™ Bibliography

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807. Zenkiewicz, M., “Corona discharge in air as a method of modification of polymeric materials' surface layers,” Polimery, 53, 1-13, (Jan 2008).

The physical and chemical principles of the process of polymeric material surface layer (WW) modification using corona discharge (WK) in an air were discussed. The phenomenon of low temperature plasma formation and the way of its interaction with polymer surface were described. Basic aims of the process of modification with WK were presented as well as the results obtained this way for particular polymers, among others PE, PP, PVC, PET. In case of PE and PP also the composite materials with polyolefine matrix or fiber filler were considered. The possibilities of corona discharge use in graft polymerization were noticed. Also numerous directions of practical use of the changes of polymers' surface layers caused by corona discharge were marked.

601. Klein, A., “Navigating challenges in corona treatment,” PFFC, 29, 12-15, (Jan 2024).

3022. Smith, R.E., “Personal communication: Comments on “Why test inks cannot tell the full truth about surface free energy”,” Diversified Enterprises, Jan 2024.

3015. Smith, R.E., “Solubility parameters and their relevance to dyne testing,”, Dec 2023.

3009. Rau, A., “Treating your business (and your customers) with corona treatment,” PFFC, 28, 8-9, (Dec 2023).

3014. Kusano, Y., and R. Kusano, “Critical assessment of the correlation between surface tension components and Hansen solubility parameters,” Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 677, Part B, (Nov 2023).

Surface or interfacial phenomena, including wetting, adsorption, adhesion, and dissolution, are of significant interest for daily life as well as for industrial and engineering applications. Surface tension and the Hansen solubility parameter (HSP) both represent similar physical characteristics related to these phenomena. It is therefore interesting to study the relation between them, and in the present work, reported empirical relations between surface tension and HSP are critically investigated. There exists an approximately proportional relation between total surface tension and HSP, although the coefficient obtained in the present work is much smaller than the commonly reported ones. The result is supported by an estimation of the coefficient using a simple physical model. On the other hand, finding correlations between the partial components of surface tension and HSP appears to be difficult as they are measured differently. The uses of databases from which measurements are taken must also be taken into question. As an example, the surface tension components of diiodomethane are investigated, and the validity of the reported values are called into question.

3011. Klein, A., “Understanding surface activation: corona treatment,” PFFC, 28, 36, (Nov 2023).

2956. Smith, R.E., “Dyne level loss on corona treated surfaces,”, Nov 2023.

2954. Smith, R.E., “Consistent application of dyne solution with cotton swabs,”, Nov 2023.

3023. no author cited, “What is dyne testing?,” Brighton Science, Oct 2023.

3008. no author cited, “The water break test as a surface measurement gauge,” Brighton Sciencce, Oct 2023.

2955. Plantier, M., “The importance of specifying your corona treater when ordering a new line through an OEM,” PFFC, 28, 14-16, (Oct 2023).

3007. no author cited, “Demystifying dyne levels: A comprehensive guide,” Brighton Science, Aug 2023.

2952. Forster, F., “Corona treatment for extrusion coating and laminating production lines,” PFFC, 28, 16-18, (Jun 2023).

2948. Couch, M., W. Lee, and M. Plantier, “Best practices for integrating plasma and flame surface treaters,” Plastics Decorating, 28-30, (Apr 2023).

2951. Eisby, J., “Dyne decay: What is it and why is it important to understand?,” PFFC, 28, 10-17, (Mar 2023).

2945. Smith, R.E., “Excessive dyne level drop in high slip PE film,”, Feb 2023.

2950. Lykke, K., “The role of corona in flexible packaging lamination requires an understanding of filmic substrates,” PFFC, 28, 11-13, (Jan 2023).

2946. Smith, R.E., “Unusually high dyne level results on aluminum,”, Jan 2023.

3006. no author cited, “Why a surface chemistry input should be included in new product specifications,” Brighton Science, Nov 2022.

2914. Smith, R.E., “Effect of surface roughness on dyne testing,”, Nov 2022.

2913. Smith, R.E., “Testing PET for the presence of a silicone coating,”, Nov 2022.

2934. Idacavage, M., “Adhesion and energy-curable coatings,” UV + EB Technology, 8, 14-15, (Oct 2022).

2930. Gilbertson, T., and M. Plantier, “Web-handling best practices for corona treating on R2R-converting lines: Why the web path matters,” Converting Quarterly, 12, 69-73, (Oct 2022).

2929. Lykke, K., “How proper treatment for flexible laminates helps achieve high bond strength, zero optical defects,” Converting Quarterly, 12, 64-68, (Oct 2022).

2928. Roberts, R., “Surface energy measurements for development and control of surface treatment options,” Plastics Decorating, 32-37, (Oct 2022).

2915. Gatenby, A., “CSC Scientific blog: A beginner's guide to surface tension, surfactants and micelles,”, Oct 2022.

2912. Lightfoot, T., “There's more than one way to treat a film,” PFFC, 27, 26-28, (Jul 2022).

2953. Eisby, J., “It's all about shelf life!,” Vetaphone (, Apr 2022.

2935. Eisby, J., “Dyne & decay: Extrusion, storage impact a film's 'shelf life'; time, humidity, additives contribute to contamination,” FLEXO, 47, 36-38, (Apr 2022).

2909. Sabreen, S.R., “UV/ozone surface pretreatment to improve adhesion of polymers,” Plastics Decorating, 40-44, (Apr 2022).

2908. Frickley, J., “Solid, liquid, gas and plasma energy: 3DT's improved PlasmaDyne Pro,” Plastics Decorating, 18, (Apr 2022).

2932. McKell, K., “Corona or plasma - which is best for your process?,” PFFC, 27, 8-12, (Mar 2022).

2883. Katz, S., “Corona treatment,” Label & Narrow Web, 27, 55-57, (Mar 2022).

2882. Kang, N., K. Myers, M. Adams, A. Sandt, and W.C. Miles, “Enabling energy-curable adhesion through polymer design,” UV + EB Technology, 8, 22-27, (Feb 2022).

2933. Klein, A., “The relationship of surface characteristics and successful corona treating,” PFFC, 27, 8-12, (Jan 2022).

2931. Sabreen, S.R., “Advanced technologies for decorating polyethylene,” Plastics Decorating, 30-33, (Jan 2022).

3040. Narimisa, M., R. Ghobeira, Y. Onyshchenko, N. De Geyter, T. Egghe, and R. Morent, “Different techniques used for plasma modification of polyolefin surfaces,” in Plasma Modification of Polyolefins: Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications, N.S. Baneesh, P.S. Sari, T. Vackova, and S. Thomas, eds., 15-56, Springer, 2022.

Polyolefins are well-known and the most commonly used polymers worldwide. Advantages like outstanding mechanical properties, chemical resistance, low cost, and processability are neighboring with some drawbacks like relatively high gas and vapor permeability, low surface energy. This chapter introduces surface plasma modification as an environmentally friendly, fast, and versatile technique. Details regarding different plasma reactor designs, generation methods, working parameters suitable for treating polyolefins are presented. Furthermore, plasma activation, grafting, and etching are described as the most commonly used techniques for surface energy modification to enhance polyolefins' biocompatibility, printability, adhesion to materials, and other parameters. For instance, plasma activation cross-linking of the polymer chains can be achieved, which leads to gas and vapor permeability improvement. Choice of working conditions allows controlling the degree of cross-linking, the type, and the concentration of the incorporated functional groups on the surface. Plasma polymerization is introduced as a technique for coating deposition with different properties and functionality depending on the operating parameters and monomer selection. Improvement of barrier layer performance and modification of the surface energy are the main applications of plasma polymerization of polyolefins.

3039. Felix, T., V. Soldi, and N.A. Debacher, “Surface modification and hydrophobic recovery (aging) of polyolefin exposed to plasma,” in Plasma Modification of Polyolefins: Synthesis, Characterization and Applications, N.S. Baneesh, P.S. Sari, T. Vackova, and S. Thomas, eds., 197-214, Springer, 2022.

The hydrophobic characteristic of polymers is considered a limiting property for its applications. To some extent, this has been overcome by techniques such as non-thermal plasma, which, even with a few seconds of application, can increase the surface energy and hydrophilic character of polymers. However, this technique is associated with advantages and disadvantages. Surface degradation related to oxidation and crosslinking are considered irreversible changes, in most cases, while the hydrophobic character is quickly restored, presenting a challenge to researchers all over the world. As a reversible behavior, efforts have been made to understand this particular characteristic of the hydrophobic recovery (or the aging effect) of polymers. The application of non-thermal plasma on polymeric surfaces has also been used in biomedicine as a sterilization device to control the growth of biofilms, as well as to increase the biocompatibility of prosthetic surfaces. This chapter discusses some particular characteristics of polyolefins exposed to plasma.

2979. Pichal, J., J. Cerman, H. Sourkova, and P. Spatenka, “Plasma pre-treatment of polypropylene surface for industrial purposes,” Materials and Manufacturing Processes, 37, 1483-1489, (2022).

The paper describes an experimental investigation of the possibility of industrial modification of surface wettability and adhesion of polymers by the action of a plasma of a gliding discharge generated in air at atmospheric pressure in a simulated production process. The test material was polypropylene plates (PP). The modification was performed by a device with a multi-electrode (four pairs) system, which is not common. The quality of pre-processing and usability was evaluated primarily in terms of the industrial requirements, which means a change in wettability and adhesion expressed by the contact angle/surface free energy value in dependence to sample exposure time expressed by the conveyor belt speed. The surface free energy assessment of a treated polymeric surface by contact angle measurement was carried out by analyzing static sessile drops and evaluated by Owens–Wendt–Rabel–Kaelble (OWRK) model. The results determined a set of operating parameters at which the modification process meets the industrial requirements. By evaluating the change in surface free energy in relation to the storage time, the degree of hydrophobic recovery of the treated samples, i.e. the time stability of the plasma-treated surface, was also determined. It has been found that plasma-treated PP surface fully meets industrial demands and can be stored for at least 50 days.


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