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1410. Cassio, V., amd F. Rimediotti, “Plasma pre-treatment in aluminum web coating: A converter experience,” in 42nd Annual Technical Conference Proceedings, Society of Vacuum Coaters, 1999.

1483. Greiveldinger, M., and M.E.R. Shanahan, “A critique of the mathematical coherence of acid-base interfacial free energy theory,” J. Colloid and Interface Science, 215, 170-178, (1999).

Acid/base theory has, over the last decade or so, been developed to describe interfacial free energies, or tensions, in wetting theory. An approach put forward by van Oss and co-workers, involving van der Waals/Lifshitz and Lewis electron acceptor/donor contributions to surface/interfacial free energies, has often been employed. The present study considers use of this theory for evaluating surface data for various polymeric surfaces employing known, characterized liquid probes for obtaining contact angle data. Results are analyzed using extended matrix analyses, originally proposed for treating the dispersive/polar interpretation of wetting results, and good agreement with literature values is obtained. By “inverting” the system, i.e., by treating the known solids as probes and rederiving surface data for liquids, inconsistencies are found to arise. Results for wetting of the same polymers and mica, using a two-liquid system (n-octane/water), are exploited to attempt to rederive the surface characteristics of water. Again, serious incoherence is manifest. Despite the conceptual interest of acid/base theory, clearly the mathematical formulation is presently inadequate. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

1487. McHale, G., S.M. Rowan, M.I. Newton, and N.A. Kab, “Estimation of contact angles on fibers,” J. Adhesion Science and Technology, 13, 1457-1469, (1999).

A droplet of liquid placed on a flat high-energy solid surface spreads to give a thin film so that no macroscopic droplet shape exists. On a chemically identical solid surface with only the geometry changed to a cylinder, the same droplet can have an equilibrium conformation. When the equilibrium conformation is of a barrel type, the profile of the droplet changes rapidly in curvature as the three-phase contact line is approached and the direct measurement of the contact angle is difficult. This work considers the theoretical profile for barrel-type droplets on cylinders and discusses how the inflection angle in the profile depends on droplet parameters. Experimental results are reported for poly(dimethylsiloxane) oils on a range of fiber surfaces and these are used to estimate the equilibrium contact angle from the inflection angle. The drop radius and volume dependence of the inflection angle is confirmed.

1489. Semal, S., T.D. Blake, V. Geskin, M.J. de Ruijter, G. Castelein, J. de Coninck, “Influence of surface roughness on wetting dynamics,” Langmuir, 15, 8765-8770, (1999).

Using the molecular-kinetic theory of wetting, we analyze the dynamic contact angle of a sessile drop of squalane spreading spontaneously on Langmuir−Blodgett multilayer substrates (behenic acid on glass). This allows the effect of microscale roughness on the parameters appearing in the theory to be determined. In particular, it is shown that the jump frequency of liquid molecules at the wetting line decreases with microroughness, supporting the idea that surface defects induce additional pining potentials. The increase in pinning potential can be explained in terms of a linear increase in the activation free energy of wetting with increasing RMS microroughness.

1580. Herbert, P.A.F., and E. Bourdin, “New generation atmospheric pressure plasma technology for industrial on-line processing,” J. Coated Fabrics, 28, (1999).

1698. Kwok, D.Y., “The usefulness of the Lifshitz-van der Waals/acid-base approach for surface tension components and interfacial tensions,” Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 156, 191-200, (1999).

The Lifshitz–van der Waals/acid-base approach proposed by van Oss et al. is found to yield inconsistent solid surface tensions and components from contact angles, for fluorocarbon, polystyrene, and poly(methyl methacrylate) solid surfaces. It is also shown that the approach cannot predict the correct interfacial tensions of all liquid–liquid pairs in question: the predicted interfacial tensions range from 34% lower to 112% higher than the experimental values. Thus, the usefulness of the approach for surface tension components and interfacial tensions is open to question. The liquid surface tension components postulated since 1986 are also summarized.

1734. Seidel, C., H. Kopf, B. Gotsmann, T. Vieth, H. Fuchs, and K. Reihs, “Ar plasma treated and Al metallised polycarbonate: an XPS, mass spectroscopy and SFM study,” Applied Surface Science, 150, 19-33, (1999).

Ar plasma etched and Al metallised bisphenol A carbonate was analysed by mass spectroscopy, photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning force microscopy (SFM). We mainly used a technical polymer (Makrolon 2808, Bayer) made by injection-moulding, as well as spin coated bisphenol A carbonate (n=1) and polycarbonate (PC) (n=115). The mass spectroscopy during the etching process shows the degradation of the PC in the form of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and methyl groups. The photoelectron spectroscopy shows in detail the surface modification after Ar plasma treatment and metallisation. The plasma induces a reduction of the carboxylic carbon (C 1s), a strong reduction of singly bonded oxygen (O 1s) and also a slight reduction of doubly bonded oxygen. After Al metallisation, a reaction of Al with the oxygen groups and an interaction with the aromatic system is documented. Ar plasma etching increases the chemical interaction of Al mainly with the aromatic carbon. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of metallised PC under different initial conditions shows a strong influence of incorporated water in the PC bulk that cannot be seen by XPS on uncoated PC. The O 1s signal increases during metallisation and results in an oxidation of Al probably caused by the fact that the hydrophobic surfaces becomes hydrophillic. Temperature-dependent XPS was done on technical PC samples and on spin coated samples (n=1, n=115) and supports the influence of the bulk state for the Al–PC interface. For n=1 carbonate, a diffusion of Al into the PC volume was observed. The SFM measurements showed a roughening effect on the nanometer scale even after short treatment times. Al can be seen as a weakly bound cluster on the virgin PC, and if a pre-etching is done, Al seems to grow as a good wetting film. The adhesion force of Al films on PC without any influence of the volume can be explained by the chemical bonding of Al to the carboxylic and aromatic systems. The adhesion can be increased by plasma pre-treatment. A breakdown of the adhesion on technical PC is probably induced by a reaction of Al with mobile intercalated gas, that is enriched near the surface after Al coating.

1739. Timerghazin, Q.K., S.L. Khursan, and V.V. Shereshovets, “Theoretical study of the reaction between ozone and the C-H bond: Gas-phase reactions of hydrocarbons with ozone,” J. Molecular Structure, 489, 87-93, (1999).

The gas-phase reactions of ozone with CSingle BondH bonds in methane, ethane, propane (secondary CSingle BondH bond), and isobutane (tertiary CSingle BondH bond) have been studied by semiempirical AM1 method. Reactions proceed through biradical transition state and lead to alkyl and hydrotrioxyl HOOOdot radicals. The latter immediately decomposes into molecular oxygen and hydroxyl radical HOdot. The formation of hydrotrioxides ROOOH in gas-phase reactions between ozone and hydrocarbons is shown to be highly improbable.

1766. Mesyats, G., Y. Klyachkin, N. Gavrilov, and A. Kondyurin, “Adhesion of polytetrafluoroethylene modified by an ion beam,” Vacuum, 52, 285-289, (1999).

Polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) was treated with N+ , O+ and C+ ion beams with energies of 20 and 30 keV at 5 mA/cm2 current density in the pulse regime. Structural changes were studied by IR ATR, XPS, IR diffuse reflectance spectra and wetting methods. After treatment the PTFE surface became chemically active to isocyanate, acrylamide and epoxy reagents, which caused a change of interface interaction with active adhesives. The durability of the PTFE adhesion joint to an epoxy adhesive increases by more than 100 times. The ion beam treatment can be used to increase adhesion joint durability of PTFE.

1767. Gavrilov, N.V., V.N. Mizgulin, R. Stinnett, and A.V. Kondyurin, “Modification of polymer films of PE, PTFE, PC, PI by pulse ion beams,” Khimicheskaya Fizika i Mesoskopiya, 1, 39-47, (1999).

1858. Netravali, A.N., J.M. Caceres, M.O. Thompson, and T.J. Renk, “Surface modification of ultra-high strength polyethylene fibers for enhanced adhesion to epoxy resins using intense pulsed high-power ion beam,” J. Adhesion Science and Technology, 13, 1331-1342, (1999).

The effects of intense pulsed high power ion beam (HPIB) treatment of ultra-high strength polyethylene (UHSPE) fibers on the fiber/epoxy resin interface strength were studied. For this study, argon ions were used to treat Spectra 1000 (UHSPE) fibers in vacuum. Chemical and topographical changes of the fiber surfaces were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflectance mode (FTIR-ATR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), dynamic wettability measurements, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fiber/epoxy resin interfacial shear strength (IFSS) was evaluated by the single fiber pull-out test. The FTIR-ATR and XPS data indicate that oxygen was incorporated onto the fiber surface as a result of the HPIB treatment. The wettability data indicate that the fibers became more polar after HPIB treatment and also more wettable. Although the total surface energy increased only slightly after treatment, the dispersive component decreased significantly while the acid-base component increased by a similar amount. SEM photomicrographs revealed that the surface roughness of the fibers increased following the HPIB treatment. The single fiber pull-out test results indicate that HPIB treatment significantly improved the IFSS of UHSPE fibers with epoxy resin. This enhancement in IFSS is attributed to increased roughness of the fiber surface resulting in mechanical bonding and in increased interface area, increased polar nature and wettability, and an improvement in the acid-base component of the surface energy after the HPIB treatment.

1859. Laurens, P., B. Sadras, F. Decobert, F. Arefi-Khonsari, and J. Amouroux, “Laser-induced surface modifications of poly(ether ether ketone): Influence of the excimer laser wavelength,” J. Adhesion Science and Technology, 13, 983-997, (1999).

The modifications induced by excimer laser irradiation of poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) surfaces have been investigated as a function of the laser process parameters for laser fluences below the material ablation threshold. In the case of 193 nm laser treatment, a significant increase in the adhesion properties of PEEK was obtained due to the formation of new polar and reactive groups on the surface. The extent of these reactive groups has to be controlled since their presence in high concentration may also have a negative effect on the mechanical properties of the treated surface. Laser treatments using 248 nm radiation did not result in a significant increase in the adhesion properties of PEEK. This probably results from thermal degradation of the surface at this laser wavelength.

1860. Dalet, P., E. Papon, and J.-J. Villenave, “Surface free energy of polymeric materials: Relevancy of conventional contact angle data analyses,” J. Adhesion Science and Technology, 13, 857-870, (1999).

To analyze various approaches for the determination of surface free energies of solids from liquid-solid contact angles, comb-like polymers with controlled grafting rates and macromolecular structures have been synthesized. The surface free energy parameters were calculated from the contact angles of standard liquids on the solid surfaces. A mathematical approach of the so-called acid-base theory of adhesion was used to characterize the nucleophilic and/or electrophilic behavior of the polymeric solid surfaces. Thus, correlations were established between the macromolecular structures and the dispersive component of the surface free energy, on the one hand, and the acid and base components, on the other. The main conclusion is that the surface free energy components are relevant for the characterization of functional comb-like polymeric materials: the dispersive and base components increase with the number of grafted electron-donating groups, whereas the acid component decreases.

1861. Garbassi, F., and E. Occhiello, “Surface modification of PAN fibers by plasma polymerization,” J. Adhesion Science and Technology, 13, 65-78, (1999).

The deposition of plasma polymers on poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN) fibers has been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and dynamic contact angle measurements. Four polymerizable monomers were examined: tetrafluoromethane (TFM), perfluoropropene (PFP), tetramethyldisiloxane (TMS), and hexamethyldisiloxane (HMS). The deposition rate of TFM was undetectable and the treated fibers exhibited some fluorination and an increase of hydrophilicity, due to posttreatment oxidation after exposure to air. The deposition rate of PFP was quite slow and the formation of an incomplete fluorinated layer was observed, with a remarkable increase of the water advancing contact angles. TMS and more so HMS quickly formed continuous and reproducible polysiloxane layers having pronounced hydrophobic properties. The influence of the position of the fibers in the plasma reactor chamber was also investigated. A good uniformity of deposition was found when the fibers were placed at different points between the electrodes.

2069. Han, S., W.-K. Choi, K.H. Yoon, S.-K. Koh, “Surface reaction on polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) irradiated by low energy ion beam in reactive gas environment,” J. Applied Polymer Science, 72, 41-47, (1999).

Polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) was irradiated by a keV Ar+ ion in O2 environment for improving adhesion between PVDF and Pt, and reaction between PVDF and the ion beam has been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The adhesion test between Pt and the modified PVDF was carried out by boiling test, in which the specimens were kept in boiling water for 4 h. Two failure modes (buckling up due to weak adhesion and crack formation due to strong adhesion) of Pt films have been observed in the system. Contact angle of PVDF was reduced to 31 from 75° by the irradiation of 1 × 1015 Ar+ ions/cm2 with oxygen flow rate of 8 sccm. The surface of the irradiated PVDF became more rough as ion dose increased. The improved adhesion mechanism and identification of newly formed chemical species have been confirmed by Carbon 1s and Fluorine 1s X-ray photoelectron core-level spectra. The main reaction occurred at the irradiated PVDF surface is an ion-beam-induced oxidation accompanied with preferential sputtering of fluorine. Newly formed chemical species at interface are regarded as ester and carboxyl groups. Adhesion of the Pt–PVDF interface was improved by ion irradiation in O2 environment. This improvement is originated from the presence of carbon—oxygen bonds on the irradiated PVDF surface. Comparison of failure modes on the irradiated PVDF at various conditions after the boiling test shows that adhesion of Pt film is largely affected by the product of ion-assisted reaction. © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 72: 41–47, 1999;2-J

2074. K. Kato, V.N. Vasilets, M.N. Fursa, M. Meguro, Y. Ikada, and K. Nakamae, “Surface oxidation of cellulose fibers by vacuum ultraviolet irradiation,” J. Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry, 37, 357-361, (1999).

The efficacy of vacuum ultraviolet irradiation for oxidizing the surface of cellulose fibers was compared to that of the conventional wet and dry processes. © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 37: 357–361, 1999

2147. Kaplan, S.L., and W.P. Hansen, “Gas plasma treatment of Kevlar and Spectra fabrics for advanced composites,”, 1999.

2152. Yializis, A., M.G. Mikheal, R.E. Ellwanger, and E.M. Mount III, “Surface functionalization of polymer films,” in 42nd Annual Technical Conference Proceedings, 469-474, Society of Vacuum Coaters, 1999.

2817. Dilsiz, N., and J.P. Wightman, “Surface analysis of unsized and sized carbon fibers,” Carbon, 37, 1105-1114, (1999).

Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and contact angle analyses were performed on unsized and sized carbon fibers to better understand the mechanism of adhesion in carbon fiber/polymer matrix composites. AFM images and surface roughness analyses showed that the sizing changes the surface topography on a microscopic scale. The total surface energy decreased from 70 mJ/m2 for unsized fiber to 54 mJ/m2 for Ultem® sized and to 36 mJ/m2 for PTPO sized fibers. The percentage of functional groups on the sized fibers decreased slightly compared to the unsized fibers. The surface functional groups and surface energies of fibers are critical properties in predicting fiber/matrix adhesion. Angle dependent XPS, voltage contrast XPS, and perimeter measurements revealed that the thickness of the poly(thioarylene phosphine oxide) (PTPO) sizing on the carbon fiber surface was greater than for the poly(etherimide) (Ultem®) sizing.

976. Ogawa, T., H. Mukai, and S. Osawa, “Effects of functional groups and surface roughness on interfacial shear strength in ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene fiber/polyethylene system,” J. Applied Polymer Science, 71, 243-249, (Jan 1999).

Corona discharge treatment was conducted for ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fiber. The functional groups and surface roughness of the polyethylene fiber surface were determined by an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The interfacial shear strength of UHMWPE fiber with HDPE film was determined by microbond pullout method. The interfacial shear strength increased by corona treatment. Then, the effect of the chemical and physical factors on the interfacial shear strength was discussed based on the results of multivariate regression analysis. The results indicated that the contribution of functional groups and surface roughness to the interfacial shear strength was expressed as 50 and 50%, respectively. © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 71: 243–249, 1999

1044. Lynch, J.B., P.D. Spence, D.E. Baker, and T.A. Postlethwaite, “Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment of polyethylene via a pulse dielectric barrier discharge: Comparison using various gas compositions versus corona discharge in air.,” J. Applied Polymer Science, 71, 319-331, (Jan 1999).

Modification of polyolefin surfaces is often necessary to achieve improved printability, lamination, etc. Although corona discharge and flame treatments can produce the higher surface energy needed for these applications, the properties of the resulting surfaces are not always optimal. Atmospheric pressure plasma is a surface modification technique that is similar to corona discharge treatment, but with more control, greater uniformity, and higher efficiency. Using an atmospheric pressure plasma unit with a dielectric barrier discharge generated using an asymmetric pulse voltage, the effects of different gases, powers, and linespeeds on polyethylene surface treatment were studied. Our results show that atmospheric pressure plasma can be used to achieve higher long-term wettability, higher surface oxygen and nitrogen, and a greater range of surface chemistries with better robustness versus standard corona treatment. Atomic force microscopy results suggest significant differences in the mechanism of surface functionalization versus etching and ablation depending on the gases used. © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 71: 319–331, 1999

1751. Vieira de Vasconcelos Villaca Pinto, G., et al, “Effect of the corona treatment and of the 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol on the surface characteristics of the poly(ethylene terepthalate) film,” in Polymer Characterization (Macromolecular Symposia 148), W. Brostow, N.A. D'Souza, V.M.C. Menesses, and M. Hess, eds., 333-343, Wiley-VCH, Jan 1999.

Several techniques have been applied for the characterization of three PET films surfaces: homopolymer PET film, corona treated PET film and a poly(ethylene terephthalate‐co‐1,4‐cyclohexanedimethanol) film. The objective of this work is to investigate and to apply precise and mutually complementary techniques which give detailled information about theses surfaces, as there are few papers with global and conclusive results. The film surfaces were investigated to support the development of new products and envisage new apllications to the existent films. Scanning electron micrographs, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR‐ATR) and multiple internal reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR‐MIR) spectra show that the chemical composition, topography and surface roughness of the films are different. The corona‐treated PET film shows high surface tension value due to the major contribution on the polar groups and oxidation level acquired. The copolyester film is much less crystalline than the other films analyzed, as demonstrated by refractive index measurements and X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The amorphous structures obtained and the high tension level of the corona‐treated films provide a better understanding of the adhesion phenomena. In view of results obtained, one can assume that corona treated films owing to its higher surface tension and films with CHDM owing to its surface amorphization should provide manufacturing industries better processing conditions than films without surface treatment and also higher levels of adhesion to paints and coatings.

77. DeRosa, M., “Corona treaters,” Flexo, 24, 22-26, (Feb 1999).

729. Markgraf, D.A., “Corona treatment enhanced adhesion for extrusion coating,” in Extrusion Coating Manual, 4th Ed., Bezigian, T., ed., 65-74, TAPPI Press, Feb 1999.

730. Sherman, P.B., “Ozonation of polymer melt for improved adhesion,” in Extrusion Coating Manual, 4th Ed., Bezigian, T., ed., 75-88, TAPPI Press, Feb 1999.

731. Laiho, E., and T. Ylanen, “Flame, corona, ozone - Do we need all pretreatments in extrusion coating?,” in Extrusion Coating Manual, 4th Ed., Bezigian, T., ed., 89-98, TAPPI Press, Feb 1999.

732. Bentley, D.J., and F.M. Singer, “Chemical primers to enhance adhesion and other properties,” in Extrusion Coating Manual, 4th Ed., Bezigian, T., ed., 99-108, TAPPI Press, Feb 1999.

733. DiGiacomo, J.D., “Flame plasma surface treatment,” in Extrusion Coating Manual, 4th Ed., Bezigian, T., ed., 121-130, TAPPI Press, Feb 1999.

734. Chehimi, M.M., “Harnessing acid-base interactions to improve adhesion,” in Adhesion Promotion Techniques: Technological Applications, K.L. Mittal and A. Pizzi, eds., 27-82, Marcel Dekker, Feb 1999.

The reversible work of adhesion (W) is the free energy change per unit area in creating an interface between two bodies (Fig. 1). The work W is related to the intermolecular forces that operate at the interface between two materials, eg, an adhesive and an adherend. However, in practice, the reversible work of adhesion may be obscured by other factors (eg, mechanical interlocking, interdiffusion) because it is always a few orders of magnitude lower than the measured adhesive joint strength [1, 2]. One important contribution to practical joint strength is the energy loss due to irreversible deformation processes within the adhesive. Nevertheless, Gent and Schultz [3] showed using peel strength measurements that viscoelastic losses were proportional to the reversible work of adhesion. For this reason, one of the important tasks is to determine the nature of interfacial chemical and physical forces and to understand how they control the reversible work of adhesion.

735. Wertheimer, M.R., L. Martinu, J.E. Klemberg-Sapieha, and G. Czeremuszkin, “Plasma treatment of polymers to improve adhesion,” in Adhesion Promotion Techniques: Technological Applications, K.L. Mittal and A. Pizzi, eds., 139-174, Marcel Dekker, Feb 1999.

In recent years, we have witnessed a remarkable growth in the use of the synthetic organic polymers in technology, both for high-technology and for consumerproduct applications (see Fig. 1 [1]). Polymers have been able to replace more traditional engineering materials such as metals, because of their many desirable physical and chemical characteristics (high strength-to-weight ratio, resistance to corrosion, etc.) and their relatively low cost. However, fundamental differences between polymers and other engineering solids have also created numerous important technical challenges, which manufacturing operations must overcome. An important example is the characteristic low surface energy of polymers and their resulting intrinsically poor adhesion [2–6]; the term “adhesion,” as it is used here and elsewhere in this text, may be briefly defined as the mechanical resistance to separation of a system of bonded materials [7]. Because adhesion is largely a surface property, often governed by a layer of molecular dimensions, it is possible to modify this near-surface region without affecting the desirable bulk properties of the material.

736. Brewis, D.M., and I. Mathieson, “Flame treatment of polymers to improve adhesion,” in Adhesion Promotion Techniques: Technological Applications, K.L. Mittal and A. Pizzi, eds., 175-190, Marcel Dekker, Feb 1999.

Good adhesion to polymers is required in a number of important technologies including adhesive bonding, printing, and painting. To achieve a satisfactory level of adhesion it is often necessary to pretreat the polymer by one of a wide range of methods. Two books are of particular interest [1, 2]. In the case of polar polymers such as nylon 66 and epoxide thermosets, a treatment may not be necessary, or if the surfaces are contaminated, a physical method such as solvent degreasing or grit blasting to remove the contaminants may be all that is required. On the other hand, if a polymer lacks suitable functionality, it will be necessary to modify its surface chemically. Polymers with no active functionality include low-density polyethylene (LDPE), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), and polypropylene (PP). A wide variety of methods for introducing new groups is available, including the use of low-pressure plasmas, corona discharges, flames, etchants, and active gases. Flame treatment to enhance adhesion to polymers has been used since the early 1950s, one of the first applications being to enhance print adhesion to lowdensity polyethylene. Since that time, flame treatment has been used with many other polymers in a variety of applications. Flame treatment has a number of advantages over the other main method of treating large areas of polymers, ie, the corona treatment. These include no reverse-side treatments, no creation of pinholes, no Ozone production, and better aging characteristics.

737. Uehara, T., “Corona discharge treatment of polymers,” in Adhesion Promotion Techniques: Technological Applications, K.L. Mittal and A. Pizzi, eds., 191-204, Marcel Dekker, Feb 1999.

The three states of matter are solid, liquid, and gas. A plasma state exists as its fourth state. A plasma consists of positively charged particles and negatively charged electrons existing at almost the same electrical density, it is overall electrically neutral, and it was named plasma by Langmuir in 1928. The easiest way to obtain a plasma state is to induce an electrical discharge in a gas. A corona discharge treatment is a kind of plasma treatment. Plasmas are classified roughly into two categories: equilibrium plasmas and nonequilibrium plasmas. In equilibrium plasmas, the temperatures of electrons and of the gas are the same. Mainly equilibrium plasmas have been studied, and temperatures of approximately 10,000 C have been reported. In nonequilibrium plasmas the gas is at ambient temperature, but the temperature of electrons is very high (about 10,000 C). These nonequilibrium plasmas are used in chemical applications and are called low-temperature plasmas or cold plasmas. The low-temperature plasmas are classified roughly into two categories:(1) ordinary low-temperature plasmas at low pressure and (2) corona discharges at atmospheric pressure. Ordinary low-temperature plasmas are widely used in chemical modification of the surfaces of materials, especially in semiconductor industries [1] as well as for polymers [2].

738. Buchman, A., and H. Dodiuk-Kenig, “Laser surface treatment to improve adhesion,” in Adhesion Promotion Techniques: Technological Applications, K.L. Mittal and A. Pizzi, eds., 205-244, Marcel Dekker, Feb 1999.

739. Pisanova, E.V., “Microbial treatment of polymer surfaces to improve adhesion,” in Adhesion Promotion Techniques: Technological Applications, K.L. Mittal and A. Pizzi, eds., 323-346, Marcel Dekker, Feb 1999.

By now, the effect of microorganisms on polymer materials has been well studied. However, most of the investigations were aimed at polymer protection against biocorrosion or, on the contrary, biodegradation of polymer wastes. Using microbial treatment for polymer adhesion improvement was initiated only in the past decade. Nevertheless, such treatment, being a variant of chemical surface modification, has a number of advantages in comparison with other known treatment techniques: It needs no expensive chemicals and solvents. It is conducted at moderate temperatures and needs no energy expenditure. It is ecologically clean. Because of the great variety of existing microorganisms, it can offer the desired degree of treatment for different polymer materials.

892. Stobbe, B.D., “Beginning flexographer: this is corona treating,” Flexo, 24, 60-65, (Feb 1999).

972. Gabriele, M.C., “Corona systems keep pace with end-use demands,” Modern Plastics Intl., 29, 28-29, (Feb 1999).

1237. Molinie, P., “Charge injection in corona-charged polymeric films: Potential decay and current measurements,” J. Electrostatics, 45, 265-273, (Feb 1999).

Currents during corona charging and surface potential decay after corona charging have been studied on polymeric films. As has been reported before, surface potential is a useful tool for investigating the electrical properties of an insulating material, making it possible to discriminate charge injection from polarization processes, when data are correctly analysed, and it has also been shown that, on thin polymeric films, slow polarization processes leading to heterocharge formation dominate at low fields, while charge injection occurs above a given field threshold. We present here a combined study of the surface potential after charge deposit and current flowing on the back electrode during the corona charge; we show that current measurements during the charge confirm the interpretation of potential measurements after corona charge. The outbreak of “hollows” in the potential distribution on the surface is clearly linked to the predominance of injected charge on the polarization charge. However, even at high fields, polarization phenomena will dominate again a given time after corona discharge stopping.

1014. Moon, S.I., and J. Jang, “Effect of the oxygen plasma treatment of UHMWPE fibre on the transverse properties of UHMWPE-fibre/vinyl ester composites,” Composites Science & Technology, 59, 487-493, (Mar 1999).

The effects of oxygen-plasma treatment of ultra-high-modulus polyethylene (UHMPE) fiber on the transverse properties of the UHMPE fiber/vinylester composites have been investigated. The UHMPE fiber/vinylester unidirectional (UD) laminates were prepared with untreated and oxygen-plasma-treated UHMPE fiber. The oxygen-plasma treatment of the UHMPE fiber increases the transverse tensile strength and failure strain of UHMPE-fiber/vinylester composites and changes the failure initiation site from the interface to the interior of the UHMPE fiber. The oxygen-plasma treatment of the UHMPE fiber introduced micro-pits on the fiber surface; these micro-pits improve the interfacial adhesion in UHMPE fiber/vinylester composites through the mechanical interlocking between the micro-pits and the vinylester resin. Finite-element (FE) modeling was performed to investigate the effect of the micro-pits on stress transfer in the UHMPE-fiber/vinylester composite. The micro-pits are known to increase the stress transfer from the vinylester resin to the UHMPE fiber and this increased stress transfer is correlated with the improved transverse properties and the transition of the failure initiation site after oxygen plasma treatment.

971. Sun, C.Q., D. Zhang, and L.C. Wadsworth, “Corona treatment of polyolefin films - A review,” Advances in Polymer Technology, 18, 171-180, (Apr 1999).

Corona discharge introduces polar groups into the polymeric surfaces and, as a consequence, improves the surface energy, wettability, and adhesion characteristics. The main chemical mechanism of corona treatment is oxidation. This article further discusses some special problems that are related to corona treatment of polyolefin films by reviewing the recent developments in this field, such as effect of corona treatment on adhesion, effect of resin additives on corona treatment, insufficient treatment and over-treatment of corona discharge, aging, and re-treatment. © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Adv Polym Techn 18: 171–180, 1999;2-8

1043. Colvin, R., “Novel plasma method treats polymer rather than part,” Modern Plastics Intl., 29, 33-34, (Apr 1999).


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