Accudynetest logo

Products available online direct from the manufacturer

ACCU DYNE TEST ™ Bibliography

Provided as an information service by Diversified Enterprises.

3040 results returned
showing result page 21 of 76, ordered by

2324. Kusabiraki, M., “Surface modification of polytetrafluoroethylene by discharges,” J. Applied Physics, Part 1, 29, 2809-2814, (1990).

A triode glow discharge system was used for the plasma treatment of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) films and the formation of plasma polymerized hexamethyldisiloxane (PPHMDS) films on PTFE films. The nitrogen plasma increased the surface tension of the PTFE films to about 40 dyn/cm by applying an rf voltage to the substrate electrode. The contact angle of water on the PPHMDS films with the rf voltage was changed to 40°∼90° by corona discharge exposure for 30 s at 6 kV. This reduction is due to the decarbonization and the oxidation of PPHMDS films.

89. Ealer, G.E., S.B. Samuels, and W.C. Harris, “Characterization of surface-treated polyethylene for water-based ink printability,” TAPPI J., 73, 145-150, (Jan 1990).

1273. Foerch, R., N.S. McIntyre, and D.H. Hunter, “Oxidation of polyethylene surfaces by remote plasma discharge: A comparison study with alternative oxidation methods,” J. Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry, 28, 193-204, (Jan 1990).

The reaction rates and products of remote oxygen plasma treatment, corona discharge, and ozone treatment of high and low density polyethylenes have been examined using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The oxygen uptake by remote plasma treatment was faster than that of other surface treatments using excited oxygen species. A steady state concentration of 18 ± 1% oxygen can be attained within 1 s of exposure in the remote plasma.

2056. Ealer, G.E., W.C. Harris, and S.B. Samuels, “Characterization of surface-treated polyethylene for water-based ink printability,” J. Plastic Film and Sheeting, 6, 17-30, (Jan 1990).

With increasingly stringent EPA guidelines for controlling emissions of volatile organic compounds on the horizon, the desirability to move to water-based printing inks is evident This paper examines the effects of corona discharge treat ments which are commonly used to improve ink adhesion to polvethylene. Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) was used to determine the surface chemi cal changes induced by corona treatments in pure polyethylene extruded films and in formulated resin systems This data was correlated with surface tension and ink adhesion measurements to show the effects of treatment and additives on the final printability of the films with particular emphasis on water-based inks. In addition, the effects of stonng treated film prior to printing and of retreating these films were also examined The results of these tests have shown that formulated linear low den sity polyethylene (LLDPE) films treat and print at least as easily as high-pressure low-density polyethylene (HP-LDPE) counterparts.

343. Smith, R.E., “Testing the surface tension of substrates,” Converting, 8, 82, (Feb 1990).

1826. van Oss, C.J., R.J. Good, and H.J. Busscher, “Estimation of the polar surface tension parameters of glycerol and formamide, for use in contact angle measurements on polar solids,” J. Dispersion Science and Technology, 11, 75-81, (Feb 1990).

By measuring contact angles with water, glycerol and formamide on a number of polar surfaces, an estimate could be made of the electron-acceptor (γ+ ) and the electron-donor (γ ) parameters of glycerol (G) and formamide (F), relative to the parameters of. water (W), for which a reference value of γ+ W = γ W = 25.5 mJ/m2 has been assumed. The values thus found are: γ+ G ≈ 3.92 mJ/m2 (which yields γ G ≈ 57.4 mJ/m2) and γ+ F ≈2.28 mJ/m2 (which yields γ F ≈ 39.6 mJ/m2).

2037. Briggs, D., H. Chan, M.J. Hearn, D.I. McBriar, and H.S. Munro, “The contact angle of poly(methyl methacrylate) cast against glass,” Langmuir, 6, 420-424, (Feb 1990).

Films of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) of both medium and high molecular weight have been prepared by casting onto clean glass. The difference in water contact angle of the surface originally in contact with glass. and air and the variation over time of this parameter have been studied. By use of the surface analytical techniques X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and, particularly, static secondary ion mass. spectroscopy (SSIMS), it has been shown that migration of low molecular weight impurities from the bulk of the film to the film/air interface is responsible for the contact angle behavior.

2044. Kloubek, J., “Evaluation of surface free energy of polyacetylene from contact angles of liquids [Erratum],” Langmuir, 6, 1034, (May 1990).

2380. Dinter, P., L. Bothe, and J.D. Gribbin, “Process and device for surface pre-treatment of plastic by means of an electrical corona discharge,” U.S. Patent 4929319, May 1990.

123. Gengler, P., “The role of dielectrics in corona treating,” Converting, 8, 62-66, (Jun 1990).

1829. Tagawa, M., K. Gotoh, A. Yasukawa, and M. Ikuta, “Estimation of surface free energies and Hamaker constants for fibrous solids by wetting force measurements,” Colloid and Polymer Science, 268, 589-594, (Jun 1990).

Wetting force at three-phase line was measured by the Wilhelmy technique using fibrous solids/liquid/liquid systems. Advancing and receding contact angles were calculated from the wetting forces during fiber immersion and emersion. The obtained results showed that contact angle hysteresis was due to the heterogeneity of the fiber surfaces. The dispersive and polar components of surface free energies of the fibers were determined from the advancing and receding contact angles, respectively. The Hamaker constants of the fibers were estimated from the dispersive components of their surface free energies.

2280. Morra, M., E. Occhiello, and F. Garbassi, “Knowledge about polymer surfaces from contact angle measurements,” Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 32, 79-116, (Jun 1990).

2381. Prohaska, G.W., R.J. Butler, and C.G. Nickoson, “Surface modification of fluoropolymers by reactive gas plasmas,” U.S. Patent 4933060, Jun 1990.

2382. Yoshida, T., and K. Isono, “Surface treatment method,” U.S. Patent 4933123, Jun 1990.

311. Savolainen, A., J. Kuusipalo, and H. Karhuketo, “Extrusion coating: corona after-treatment of LDPE coating,” TAPPI J., 73, 133-139, (Jul 1990).

416. Bassemir, R.W., and R. Krishnan, “Practical applications of surface energy measurements in flexography,” Flexo, 15, 31-40, (Jul 1990).

935. Cormia, R.D., “Use plasmas to re-engineer your advanced materials,” Research & Development, (Jul 1990).

79. DiBello, L., “An alternate technique for the measurement of surface tension of treated substrates,” in 1990 Polymers, Laminations and Coatings Conference Proceedings, 801-803, TAPPI Press, Aug 1990.

223. Lindland, H.T., and C. Granville, “New developments in flame treating,” in Polymers, Laminations and Coatings Conference Proceedings 1999 (Book 2), TAPPI Press, Aug 1990.

528. Markgraf, D.A., and R. Edwards, “Corona treating solves sealing problems: eliminating the elusive hydrocarbon,” in 1990 Polymers, Laminations and Coatings Conference Proceedings, 915-925, TAPPI Press, Aug 1990.

1456. Kaplan, S.L., and P.W. Rose, “Plasma surface treatment of plastics to enhance adhesion,” in Adhesion '90, 4/1-4/7, Sep 1990.

27. Blitshteyn, M., and R. Wetterman, “Surface treatment of polyolefins,” Modern Plastics, 67, 424, (Oct 1990).

523. Mapleston, P., “Plasma technology progress improves options in surface treatment,” Modern Plastics Intl., 20, 74-79, (Oct 1990).

540. Nishimura, H., T. Nakao, T. Uehara, and S. Yano, “Improvement of paperboard mechanical properties through corona-discharge treatment,” TAPPI J., 73, 275-276, (Oct 1990).

910. Wettermann, R.P., “Electrical surface treatment of medical plastics,” Medical Device & Diagnostic Industry, (Oct 1990).

291. Podhajny, R.M., “Comparing surface treatments,” Converting, 8, 46-52, (Nov 1990).

386. Wetterman, R.P., “Electrical surface treatment of polyolefin packaging materials for improved adhesion and printing,” J. Packaging Technology, 6, 22-25, (Nov 1990).

534. Menges, G., W. Michaeli, R. Ludwig, and K. Scholl, “Corona treatment of polypropylene films,” Kunststoffe, 80, 4-6, (Nov 1990).

690. Hart, C.P., “Metallized films having an inherent copolyester coating,” U.S. Patent 4971863, Nov 1990.

1455. Kasemura, T., S. Ozawa, and K. Hattori, “Surface modification of fluorinated polymers by microwave plasmas,” J. Adhesion, 33, 33-44, (Nov 1990).

We developed a new plasma treating method, incorporating the use of microwaves generated by an electronic cooking range. Using this method, polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) and a copolymer of tetrafluoroethylene and hexafluoropropylene (FEP) were treated. Dialkylphthalates (DAP) were used as the standard liquids of contact angle measurements for evaluation of the wetting properties of plasma treated polymers. The components of surface tension (γL) due to the dispersion force (γd L) and the polar force (γP L) of DAP were calculated by Fowkes' equation from the contact angles (θ) on polypropylene. After plasma treatment cos θ of several standard liquids on PTFE and FEP increased. The linear relationship between γL(1 + cos θ)/(γd L)½ and (γP LP L)½ was verified. γs and γd s and γd s of the plasma treated PTFE and FEP also increased. From the results of ESCA analysis, it was found that a significant amount of oxygen was introduced to the polymer surface by the plasma treatment. Peel strengths of a pressure sensitive adhesive bonded to PTFE and FEP increased approximately two-to threefold if the plasma treatment was used prior to bonding.

2383. Kelly, P.T., “Corona-discharge treated release films,” U.S. Patent 4978436, Dec 1990.

2402. Arrington, E.E., D.A. Glocker, and T.J. Tatarzyn, “Atmospheric pressure glow discharge treatment of paper base material for imaging applications,” U.S. Patent 5888713, Mar 1999.

1. Bassemir, R.W., and R. Krishnan, “Surface phenomena in waterbased flexo inks for printing on polyethylene films,” in Surface Phenomena and Fine Particles in Water-Based Coatings and Printing Technology, Sharma, M.K., and F.J. Micale, eds., 27-34, Plenum Press, 1991.

In the Flexographic printing of polyethylene films with waterbased flexo inks, the partitioning of the surfactants between film/ink, pigment/ water, ink/air interfaces plays a major role in determining the printability. In addition, in formulations containing nonionic surfactants the equilibrium surface properties are much different from the diffusion limited dynamic properties. Problems associated with the printability are examined from an analysis of the above surface chemical considerations.

10. Asfardjani, K., Y. Segui, Y. Aurelle, and N. Abidine, “Effect of plasma treatments on wettability of polysulfone and polyetherimide,” J. Applied Polymer Science, 43, 271-281, (1991).

Experimental results on plasma treatments of polysulfone and polyetherimide to improve the wettability of these polymers are presented. The plasma is characterized by optical emission spectroscopy. The wettability of the polymer surfaces were checked by contact angle measurements and ESCA is used to compare the surfaces before and after plasma treatment. Correlations between contact angle, concentration of oxygen at the surface, and optical emission intensity of the OH radical have been established. Optimization of operational plasma parameters leading to the best wettability of the treated samples is reported.

37. Brennan, W.J., W.J. Feast, H.S. Munro, and S.A. Walker, “Investigation of the ageing of plasma oxidized PEEK,” Polymer, 32, 1527-1530, (1991).

Oxygen plasma treatment can be used for increasing the hydrophilicity of polymer surfaces, however, it is widely known that this effect decays significantly with time. This ageing phenomenon is thought to be caused by both migration of low molecular weight fragments and reorientation of modified polymer chains. It has recently been shown that the aged surface becomes transiently hydrophilic before attaining a final surface energy significantly lower than the initially treated surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements were used to monitor the changes in surface chemistry of plasma oxidized poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) during post treatment storage. The decay and transient increase in hydrophilicity were found to be dependent upon crystallinity and storage temperature.

78. Dewez, J.L., E. Humbeek, et al, “Plasma treated polymer films: Relationship between surface composition and surface hydrophilicity,” in Polymer-Solid Interfaces, 463-474, Inst. of Physics Publishing, 1991.

100. Foerch, R., and D. Johnson, “XPS and SSIMS analysis of polymers: the effect of remote nitrogen plasma treatment on polyethylene, poly(ethylene vinyl alcohol) and poly(ethylene terephthalate),” Surface and Interface Analysis, 17, 847-854, (1991).

A study has been undertaken in which both x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fast atom bombardment static secondary ion mass spectrometry (FAB-SSIMS) have been used to study the effects of remote nitrogen plasma treatment on polymers such as linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE), poly(ethylene vinyl alcohol) (EVOH) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). For comparison, remote oxygen plasma treatment was also performed on LLDPE. A very rapid uptake of nitrogen was observed for all polymers. Negative FAB-SSIMS indicated CN, CNO and C2N-3 fragments on each of the nitrogen plasma-treated polmers. Positive FAB-SSIMS spectra of plasma-treated LLDPE showed relatively high intensity, high mass fragments, thought to originate from additives. These were not observed for the other two polymers. Significant amounts of aromatic-type fragments were observed in the positive FAB-SSIMS spectra of all treated polymers. Surface stability studies have shown that for both nitrogen and oxygen plasma-treaed LLDPE there is a substantial decrease in the surface functionality on exposure to air. This effect was much less prevalent for EVOH and PET.

101. Foerch, R., J. Izawa, and G. Spears, “Comparative study of the effects of remote nitrogen plasma, remote oxygen plasma, and corona discharge treatments on the surface properties of polyethylene,” J. Adhesion Science and Technology, 5, 549-564, (1991).

The effects of remote nitrogen plasma, remote oxygen plasma, and corona discharge treatments on linear low-density polyethylene were studied with regard to the chemical and physical surface modification, depth of modification, and surface stability. An attempt was made to correlate the type and the extent of modification with the printing and adhesion properties of the modified surfaces. Surface topography was studied using scanning electron microscopy. The relative percentages of nitrogen and oxygen on the surfaces were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Printing and adhesion tests were performed using standard, commercially available inks and adhesives.

135. Giroux, T.A., and S.L. Cooper, “Surface characterization of plasma-derivatized polyurethanes,” J. Applied Polymer Science, 43, 145-155, (1991).

The use of plasma deposition to introduce sulfonate groups to the surface of a polyurethane was attempted. In previous work, the bulk incorporation of sulfonate groups was found to improve the blood contacting properties of the base polyurethane but physical properties in the hydrated state were adversely affected. Plasma deposition schemes involving ammonia and sulfur dioxide were utilized in an attempt to incorporate sulfonate groups. Surface characterization by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements was used to follow polymer surface rearrangement dynamics and to address the issue of plasma chemistry specificity. Concerns of reaction specificity were alleviated by using the plasma as a pretreatment which is followed by a chemical surface derivatization.

190. Kawese, T., M. Uchita, T. Fujii, and M. Minagawa, “Acrylic acid grafted polyester surface: surface free energies, FT-IR (ATR), and ESCA characterization,” Textile Research J., 61, 146-152, (1991).

The surface of polyester grafted with acrylic acid has been characterized using contact angle measurements of a two-liquid phase system and FT-IR and ESCA spectroscopy as a function of the concentration of acrylic acid on grafting. The COOH groups on the polymer surface influence only the polar component γs p of surface energy and not the dispersive one γs d. Both the FT-IR and ESCA characterizations, showing the transformation of COOH to COONa by alkaline treatment, provide information with a high degree of surface sensitivity, comparable to that of contact angle measurements. The relative area ratios of the COONa peak to the COOR peak by FT-IR ( Asurface) and of the Na1s peak to the C1s peak by ESCA are linearly correlated to γsp.


<-- Previous | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 36 | 37 | 38 | 39 | 40 | 41 | 42 | 43 | 44 | 45 | 46 | 47 | 48 | 49 | 50 | 51 | 52 | 53 | 54 | 55 | 56 | 57 | 58 | 59 | 60 | 61 | 62 | 63 | 64 | 65 | 66 | 67 | 68 | 69 | 70 | 71 | 72 | 73 | 74 | 75 | 76 | Next-->