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1250. Radelczuk, H., L. Holysz, and E. Chibowski, “Comparison of the Lifschitz-van der Waals/acid-base and contact angle hysteresis approaches for determination of solid surface free energy,” J. Adhesion Science and Technology, 16, 1547-1568, (2002).

Total surface free energy, γS TOT, for several solids (glass, PMMA, duralumin, steel and cadmium) was calculated from the surface free energy components: apolar Lifshitz–van der Waals, γS LW, and acid–base electron–donor, γS -, and electron–acceptor, γS +. Using van Oss and coworkers' approach (Lifshitz–van der Waals/acid–base (LWAB) approach), the components were determined from advancing contact angles of the following probe liquids: water, glycerol, formamide, diiodomethane, ethylene glycol, 1-bromonaphthalene and dimethyl sulfoxide. Moreover, receding contact angles were also measured for the probe liquids, and then applying the contact angle hysteresis (CAH) approach very recently proposed by Chibowski, the total surface free energy for these solids was calculated. Although the thus determined total surface free energy for a particular solid was expected to depend on the combination of three probe liquids used (LWAB approach), as well as on the kind of the liquid used (CAH approach), surprisingly the average values of the surface free energy from the two approaches agreed very well. The results obtained indicate that both approaches can deliver some useful information about the surface free energy of a solid.

884. Radu, C.-D., P. Kiekens, and J. Verschuren, “Surface modification of textiles by plasma treatments,” in Surface Characteristics of Fibers and Textiles, Pastore, C.M., and P. Kiekens, eds., 203-218, Marcel Dekker, Dec 2000.

The idea of the treatment of textiles with plasma is a few decennia old. There is no consensus about who was “the first,” but it is clear that the treatment of textiles is historically linked to the plasma treatment of polymers in general. As one of the most promising alternatives in many fields, the importance of plasma treatments results from the exceptional advantages it offers. It does have specific action only at the surface, keeping the bulk properties unaffected. The future of plasma is closely linked to the fact that this technique gives the treated surface some properties that cannot be obtained by conventional techniques, and this is without the need to use water as a reaction medium. At the level of textiles, this means changing an almost inert surface into a reactive one, and in this way, it becomes a surface engineering tool. The transfer of research results into the technological field would lead to nonpolluting and very promising operating conditions. In the prospect of chemical finishing using plasma, two main methods can be considered: grafting of a compound on the fiber or surface modification by means of discharges.

2611. Raghavan, V., “Acrylics on plastics: Basics of wetting and adhesion,” http://justpaint.org/acrylics-on-plastics/, Aug 2014.

1378. Rahel, J., M. Cernak, I. Hudec, M. Stefecka, M. Kando, and I. Chodak, “Surface modification of polyester monofilaments by atmospheric-pressure nitrogen plasma,” Plasmas and Polymers, 5, 119-127, (Dec 2000).

Polyester monofilaments were treated by a pulsed surface electrical discharge in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure, to increase their adhesion to an epoxy resin matrix. The treatment resulted in an eight-fold increase in adhesive strength, without any change in mechanical properties of the monofilaments. It is concluded that polar group interactions, rather than increased surface area, are responsible for the improved adhesive strength.

651. Raleigh, P., “Surface treatment: styles and options,” Plastics & Rubber Weekly, 1468, 12+, (Jan 1992).

1506. Rame, E., and S. Garoff, “Spreading of liquids on solid surfaces: pure fluids,” Presented at ISCST 13th International Coating Science and Technology Symposium, Sep 2006.

1510. Rance, D.G., “Thermodynamics of wetting: From its molecular basis to technological application,” in Surface Analysis and Pretreatment of Plastics and Metals, Brewis, D.M., ed., 121-152, Applied Science, Feb 1982.

1082. Rangwalla, H., A. Schwab, B. Yurdumakan, D. Yablon, M.S. Yeganeh, A. Dhinojwala, “Direct evidence of surface heterogeneity as a cause of contact-angle hysteresis,” in PMSE Preprints, American Chemical Society, Aug 2004.

301. Ranoia Alonso, M., “The royal treatment,” Package Printing, 41, 26-31, (Oct 1994).

2795. Ranowsky, A., “Contact angle fundamentals: What you actually need to know,” https://www.cscscientific.com/csc-scientific-blog/contact-angle-fundamentals..., Aug 2019.

1189. Rasmussen, J.R., “The organic surface chemistry of low-density polyethylene film (PhD thesis),” M.I.T., 1976.

1817. Rastogi, A.K., and L.E. St. Pierre, “Interfacial phenomena in macromolecular systems III: The surface free-energies of polyethers,” J. Colloid and Interface Science, 31, 168-175, (Oct 1969).

The surface free-energies of the polyethers, polyethylene glycol, polypropylene glycol, polyepichlorohydrin, and polybutylene glycol, their mixtures and their random and block copolymers were determined by means of the pendant drop method. In all cases, except that of random copolymers, surface excesses of the low surface-energy component have been found. In the mixtures of homopolymers the behavior of surface excess isotherms depends on the molecular weight of the two components, while in block copolymers it depends on the degree of polymerization of the base unit. The Belton and Evans Equation for perfect solutions and the Prigogine equation for r-mer solutions have been applied to the experimental data.

1819. Rastogi, A.K., and L.E. St. Pierre, “Interfacial phenomena in macromolecular systems V: The surface free energies and surface entropies of polyethylene glycols and polypropylene glycols,” J. Colloid and Interface Science, 35, 16-22, (Jan 1971).

The surface tension and surface entropies of different molecular weight polyethylene glycols and polypropylene glycols have been measured. The surface entropy of a mixture of polyethylene glycol and polypropylene glycol and that of block copolymers have also been determined. In the case of homopolymers, there is no effect of molecular weight on surface free energy and the increase in free energy on passing from the interior to the surface is due mainly to the heat content with the entropic contribution being very small.

In the case of a mixture of homopolymers and block copolymers, a minimum is observed when surface entropy is plotted against composition. At any particular composition, the surface entropy of a mixture is higher than that of a block copolymer of the same composition.

866. Ratner, B.D., “Surface diagnostics of plasma-treated materials,” in Plasma Processing of Polymers (NATO Science Series E: Applied Sciences, Vol. 346), d'Agostino, R., P. Favia, and F. Fracassi, eds., 211-220, Kluwer Academic, Nov 1997.

3009. Rau, A., “Treating your business (and your customers) with corona treatment,” PFFC, 28, 8-9, (Dec 2023).

550. Rawls, A.S., et al, “Evaluation of surface concentration of additives in LLDPE films,” in ANTEC 97, Society of Plastics Engineers, 1997.

302. Ray, A., “Is in-line corona treating necessary?,” Flexo, 21, 56-58, (Oct 1996).

1821. Ray, B.R., J.R. Anderson, and J.J. Scholz, “Wetting of polymer surfaces I: Contact angles of liquids on starch, amylose, amylopectin, cellulose, and polyvinyl alcohol,” J. Physical Chemistry, 62, 1220-1227, (1958).

2788. Rebros, M., P.D. Fleming, and M.K. Joyce, “UV-inks, substrates and wetting,” in 2006 Coating & Graphic Arts Conference, TAPPI Press, 2006.

Presently, it is desirable that one type of ink be suitable for printing on various substrates with different properties. Hence, the emphasis on new models and methods of printability prediction is necessary. The main objective of this work was to study and find correlation between physical properties of printing ink and substrate and finally how these properties can affect printability. For this purpose, contact angle measurement, surface tension measurement, rheology, and various methods for surface characterization of substrates were used.

851. Reed, N.M., and J.C. Vickerman, “The application of static secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to the surface analysis of polymer materials,” in Surface Characterization of Advanced Polymers, Sabbatini, L., and P.G. Zambonin, eds., 83-162, VCH, Jul 1993.

918. Reese, D.E., “The challenge of printing plastic package films,” Flexo, 18, 14-27, (Mar 1993).

1820. Reichert, W.M., F.E. Filisko, and S.A. Barenberg, “Polyphosphazenes: Effect of molecular motions on thrombogenesis,” J. Biomedical Materials Research, 16, 301-312, (1982).

The effect and interrelationship between primary (segmental backbone) and secondary (side chain) molecular motions on thrombogenesis, independent of morphological order/disorder, crystallinity, and/or associated water is elucidated using an amorphous hydrophobic polymer of poly-[(trifluoroethoxy) (fluoroalkoxy)phosphazene], PNF. The results indicate that thrombogenesis for an amorphous hydrophobic polymer is sensitive and dependent on the degrees and types of primary and secondary molecular motions at the polymer interface.

2669. Reisig, S., “Comparative study between pulsed-DC and RF plasma pre-treatment of polymer web,” http://flexpack.info/laminating/comparative-study-between-pulsed-DC-and..., Jan 2017.

303. Reneker, D.H., and L.H. Bolz, “Effect of atomic oxygen on the surface morphology of polyethylene,” J. Macromolecular Science, A10, 599-608, (1976).

The chemical species created in a low-pressure electrical discharge in oxygen attack the polymer at the surface, converting it to gaseous products. This process is interesting because: 1) the chemical changes on the resulting surface facilitate the formation of strong adhesive bonds and provide sites for the chemical attachment of other molecules, 2) significant morphological features lying below the surface may be revealed, 3) polymer can be cleanly removed from surfaces which are resistant to oxidation, and 4) dielectric breakdown frequently is preceded by the attack on the polymer of chemical species created in a corona discharge. Atomic oxygen is an important chemical species created in such a discharge. It reacts with organic substances rapidly at room temperature, but lives long enough in the low-pressure gas that it can be separated from many other reactive species created in the discharge. “Titration” with NO2 provides a straightforward chemiluminescent means for determining the concentration of atomic oxygen to which the sample is exposed. This paper characterizes the attack of atomic oxygen, perhaps in the presence of long lived but less reactive species such as excited O2molecules, on polymer surfaces, using electron microscopic observations of known morphological features of polyethylene to observe the changes produced by atomic oxygen. Lamellar polyethylene crystals were attacked both at the edges and the fold surfaces. Layers many microns thick were removed from spherulitic samples and replicas obtained from the surfaces thus exposed. Thick samples were thinned to the point at which they were transparent to an electron beam and interior morphological features were directly observed.

1465. Rengasamy, R.S., “Wetting phenomena in fibrous materials,” in Thermal and Moisture Transport in Fibrous Materials, Pan, N., and P. Gibson, eds., 156-187, Woodhead Publishing, Nov 2006.

902. Rentzhog, M., and A. Fogden, “Rheology and surface tension of water-based flexographic inks and implications for wetting of PE-coated board,” Nordic Pulp & Paper Research J., 20, 399-409, (2005).

This study systematically characterises a matrix of water-based flexographic inks with respect to their rheology, surface tension and wetting of liquid packaging board, to provide a basis for interpretation and prediction of their printing performance. For all pigment and acrylate polymer vehicles and mixing proportions the inks were shown to be shear thinning and thixotropic, with plastic viscosity, yield stress and storage and loss moduli increasing strongly with content of solution polymer (at comparable solids contents). The solution polymer decreases the static surface tension of the inks, but generally leads to an increase in their equilibrium drop contact angle on the polyethylene- (PE-) coated board due to increase in the ink-board interfacial energy. The solution polymer also decreases the drop spreading rate, and a simple model is tested to express the spreading dynamics in terms of equilibrium contact angle and a rate parameter given by the effective ratio of surface tension to viscosity.

2017. Rentzhog, M., and A. Fogden, “Print quality and resistance for water-based flexography on polymer-coated boards: Dependence of ink formulation and substrate pretreatment,” Progress in Organic Coatings, 57, 183-194, (Nov 2006).

The performance of water-based acrylic flexographic inks laboratory printed on three different polymer-coated boards, namely coated with LDPE, OPP and PP, have been analysed and interpreted. The print quality and resistance properties obtained were related to varying ink formulation, in particular choice of emulsion polymer and presence of silicone additive in the vehicle, as well as varying levels of corona pretreatment. Print mottle and adhesion were worst on PP, while wet (water) rub and scratch resistance were worst on OPP and PE, respectively. However, these properties could be greatly influenced by the ink formulation, more so than corona level. In general addition of silicone improved scratch resistance, due to reduction in polar energy component of the print surface, but at the expense of worsened wet rub resistance. The emulsion polymer giving best resistance performance was generally found to give poorest optical properties, presumably due to more limited resolubility on press.

2005. Rhee, S.K., “Surface tension of low-energy solids,” J. Colloid and Interface Science, 44, 173-174, (Jul 1973).

1984. Richards, S., “The effects of surface treatment on heat seal and hot tack,” Presented at TAPPI International Flexible Packaging & Extrusion Division Conference, Apr 2018.

551. Rideal, E.K., An Introduction to Surface Chemistry, 2nd Ed., Cambridge University Press, 1930.

624. Rigali, L., and W. Moffat, “Gas plasma: A dry process for cleaning and surface treatment,” in Handbook for Critical Cleaning, Kanegsberg, B., and E. Kanegsberg, eds., 337-342, CRC Press, Dec 2000.

808. Ringenbach, A., Y. Jugnet, and T.M. Duc, “Interfacial chemistry in Al and Cu metallization of untreated and plasma treated polyethylene and polyethylene terephthalate,” J. Adhesion Science and Technology, 9, 1209-1228, (1995) (also in Polymer Surface Modification: Relevance to Adhesion, K.L. Mittal, ed., p. 101-120, VSP, May 1996).

1544. Ristey, W.J., et al, “Degradation and surface oxidation of PE...,” in TAPPI 1978 Conference Proceedings, 267+, TAPPI Press, 1978.

2997. Riyanto, E., “Surface treatment of polyimide using atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma,” ScienceAsia, 46, 444-449, (2020).

In this study, polyimide was treated by atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma using a helium and/or helium-oxygen mixture gasses. The polyimide was placed between copper electrodes with dielectric material installed on the cathode electrode. To investigate the surface treatment, the plasmas as a function of power, treatment time, and plasma gasses were introduced on the polyimide substrate. The experimental results show that the polyimide treated by dielectric barrier discharge plasma increases the wetting property. This property can be attributed to the surface roughness and the water compatible functional groups. The roughness increases by helium plasma treatment and can be further improved by increasing plasma power or the presence of oxygen in the helium-oxygen mixture plasma. On the other hand, the plasma surface treatment led to formation of oxygen related functional groups of -C=O and -OH.

2928. Roberts, R., “Surface energy measurements for development and control of surface treatment options,” Plastics Decorating, 32-37, (Oct 2022).

2822. Robinson, K., “Static control for corona treaters,” PFFC, 25, 14-18, (Oct 2020).

874. Robinson, P.J., Decorating and Coating of Plastics (Rapra Review Report 65), Rapra, May 1993.

1338. Rodriguez, J.M., “Mechanisms of paper and board wetting,” in The Sizing of Paper, 3rd Ed., J.M. Gess and J.M. Rodriguez, eds., 9-25, TAPPI Press, Sep 2005.

2526. Rodriguez-Santiago, V., A.A. Bujanda, B.E. Stein, and D.D. Pappas, “Atmospheric plasma processing of polymers in helium-water vapor dielectric barrier discharges,” Plasma Processes and Polymers, 8, 631-639, (Jul 2011).

In this study, the surfaces of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) films were treated with a helium-water vapor plasma at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. Surface changes related to hydrophilicity, chemical funtionalization, surface energy, and adhesive strength after plasma treatment were investigated using water contact angle (WCA) measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and mechanical T-peel tests. Results indicate increased surface energy accompanied with enhanced hydrophilicity. WCA decreased by 36, 50, and 16% for UHMWPE, PET, and PTFE, respectively, after only 0.4 s treatment. For UHMWPE, it is shown that the surface functionalization can be tailored depending on the plasma exposure time. Aging studies performed for these three polymers show the stability of the surface groups as indicated by a small increase in WCA values of plasma treated samples which can be attributed to cross-linking of surface and subsurface polymer chains. XPS analysis of the surfaces show increased oxygen content via the formation of polar, hydroxyl-based functional groups. Furthermore, major changes in the polymer structure of PET are observed, possibly due to the opening of the aromatic rings caused by the plasma energetic species. T-peel test results show an 8, 7.5, and 400-fold increase in peel strength for UHMWPE, PET, and PTFE, respectively. Most importantly, it is shown that water-vapor based plasmas can be a promising, “green,” inexpensive route to promote the surface activation of polymers.

2493. Rodriguez-Santiago, V., A.A. Bujanda, K.E. Strawhecker, and D.D. Pappas, “The effect of helium-air, helium-water vapor, helium-oxygen, and helium-nitrogen atmospheric pressure plasmas on the adhesion strength of polyethylene,” in Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treatment of Polymers, M. Thomas and K.L. Mittal, eds., 299-314, Scrivener, 2013.

 

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