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767. Wantke, K.D., and H. Fruhner, “The oscillating bubbles method,” in Drops and Bubbles in Interfacial Research, Mobius, D., and R. Miller, eds., 327-366, Elsevier, Jun 1998.

2936. Wapner, P.G., and W.P. Hoffman, “Liquid to solid angle of contact measurement,” U.S. Patent 6867854, Mar 2005.

A liquid to solid material surface contact angle measurement system operating by way of detecting a transition in the behavior of a liquid sample with the solid material in a changing angular confinement environment along with use of a mathematical algorithm to then determine contact angle. Measurement of the angle at which the tested liquid transitions between apparent wetting and apparent non-wetting behavior, regardless of whether the liquid and solid material are truly classified as wetting or non-wetting, provides a measurement from which disclosed mathematical algorithms can predict the surface wetting characteristics of the liquid on the solid material. Automated performance of the confinement environment measurement and examples are included.

377. Ward, T.L., and R.R. Benerito, “Testing based on wettability to differentiate washed and unwashed cotton fibers,” Textile Research J., 55, 40-45, (Jan 1985).

Cotton fibers from four varieties were washed with water using two procedures that included several combinations of temperatures and water volumes. Wettability of unwashed and washed fibers was determined by contact angle measurement and by a sink-float technique. The sink-float technique could be used to sort washed and unwashed cotton fibers.

1492. Washburn, E.W., “The dynamics of capillary flow,” Physical Review, 17, 273-283, (1921).

Penetration of Liquids into Cylindrical Capillaries.—The rate of penetration into a small capillary of radius r is shown to be: dl dt= P (r 2+ 4 ε r) 8 η l, where P is the driving pressure, ε the coefficient of slip and η the viscosity. By integrating this expression, the distance penetrated by a liquid flowing under capillary pressure alone into a horizontal capillary or one with small internal surface is found to be the square root of (γ rt· cos θ 2 η), where γ is the surface tension and θ the angle of contact. The quantity (γ cos θ 2 η) is called the coefficient of penetrance or the penetrativity of the liquid.

378. Washburn, J.D., “Round Robin Data for D2578-67 (Research Report File No. D-20-1009),” ASTM, Nov 1970.

2201. Washebeck, D., “Useful information: Plasma and surface treatment,” http://www.pillartech.eu/Treaters/tru1.htm,

2417. Washebeck, R.J., and R.A. Kleinschmidt, “Narrow web corona treater,” U.S. Patent 6894279, May 2005.

A corona discharge device is adapted to be used in conjunction with a printing press. The device includes a cabinet housing an on-board power supply associated with a high voltage transformer. A rear end plate and a front end plate spaced apart in parallel relationship from the rear end plate both depend from the cabinet. An electrode support tube is fixedly mounted to the cabinet and has an electrode magazine slidably mounted on the support tube between an operative position and an inoperative position, the magazine including a series of parallel electrodes. A grounded treater roll is rotatably mounted on a first shaft between the rear end plate and the front end plate and below the support tube. A pair of spaced idler rolls is rotatably mounted on respective second and third shafts between the rear end plate and the front end plate below the treater roll such that a flexible web is guided upwardly by the idler rolls and wound about the treater roll beneath the electrodes.

379. Waterhouse, J.F., “Mechanical and physical properties of paper surfaces,” in Surface Analysis of Paper, Conners, T.E., and S. Banerjee, eds., 72-89, CRC Press, Jul 1995.

Paper, although ubiquitous, is a complex material. We can classify paper as a basic network of self bonding cellulosic fibers; the chemical and physical characteristics of its surface are controlled by the raw materials, papermaking and converting processes used to produce it. Paper sometimes contains non-cellulosic fibers such as non-wood and synthetic fibers, chemical additives, fillers, and bonding agents. Other chemical additives used in the papermaking process, e.g., formation, drainage, and retention aids or coating materials may also change the physical and chemical characteristics of the paper's surface. With the greater use of recycled fibers we may expect additional changes in surface chemistry and structure.

595. Watson, W.M., “Adhesion to polyethylene with water-based inks,” American Ink Maker, 62, 38-106, (Oct 1984).

380. Weber, J.H., “Predict surface tension of binary liquids,” Chemical Engineering, 92, 87-90, (Oct 1985).

2742. Weber, R., “Saturation phenomena in conjunction with corona treatment on different substrates,” in 2005 PLACE Conference Proceedings, 1213-1216, TAPPI Press, Sep 2005.

2757. Weber, R., “Saturation phenomena in conjunction with corona treatment on different substrates,” in 2005 European PLACE Conference Proceedings, TAPPI Press, 2005.

2208. Weber. R., “Corona experiences on paper and cardboard,” in 11th European PLACE Conference Proceedings, TAPPI Press, May 2007.

1912. Webster, H.F., and J.P. Wightman, “Effects of oxygen and ammonia plasma treatment on polypropylene sulfide thin films and their interaction with epoxy adhesive,” J. Adhesion Science and Technology, 5, 93-106, (1991) (also in Acid-Base Interactions: Relevance to Adhesion Science and Technology, K.L. Mittal and H.R. Anderson Jr., eds., p. 329-342, VSP, Nov 1991).

X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) were used to study the chemical modification of polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) thin films on exposure to both oxygen and ammonia plasmas. The XPS results for the oxygen plasma treatment indicated a large oxygen increase with the incorporation of various oxidized carbon species as well as oxidized sulfur. For the ammonia plasma, both nitrogen and oxygen were incorporated. IRRAS proved to complement the XPS results, showing a wide range of CSingle Bond O and CDouble BondO functionalities incorporated on oxygen plasma exposure. For the ammonia plasma treatment, an increase in hydrocarbon, alkene-type fragments, and possibly amine groups was detected. Both the XPS and IRRAS results indicated that exposure of plasma-treated surfaces to epoxy with subsequent carbon tetrachloride washes removed most of the modification originally present after plasma treatment. IRRAS analysis showed that a thin layer of epoxy remained after repeated solvent washes and that the film seemed to be cured. For untreated PPS films, a non-cured epoxy film adsorbed. This work suggests that the plasma-modified layer plays a role in the formation of a covalent interphase region between PPS and epoxy.

381. Weinberg, M.L., “High energy,” Package Printing, 44, 38-43, (May 1997).

2339. Weininger, J.L., “Reaction of active nitrogen with polyethylene,” Nature, 186, 546-547, (1960).

THE nature of active nitrogen, the mechanism of its afterglow1, and its gas phase reactions with organic molecules2 have been discussed. I have now investigated a heterogeneous active nitrogen reaction at a polymer surface.

1928. Weiss, C., and H. Muenstedt, “Surface modification of polyether ether ketone (PEEK) films for flexible printed circuit boards,” J. Adhesion, 78, 443-445, (May 2002).

The surface of polyether ether ketone (PEEK) films was modified using plasma treatment, corona, or surface etching to improve their adhesion with regard to glued copper foils and copper layers generated by physical vapor deposition. After the pretreatments, surface chemical analysis was performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The wetting behavior was qualitatively investigated by contact angle measurements. Surface topography was monitored by laser scanning microscopy (LSM). After coating, the adhesion strength of the copper layer was measured by a peel force test. Plasma treatment, corona discharge, or etching lead to a significant increase in adhesion. This increase is caused by a change in surface topography as well as by the incorporation of polar groups into the surface.

2667. Weiss, D.A., “Effective ink transfer,” Flexo, 41, 68-72, (Oct 2016).

382. Weiss, H., “Surface energy can inhibit ink transfer on ceramic rolls,” Paper Film & Foil Converter, 68, 62, (Jan 1994).

383. Weiss, H., “Surface tension flexo condition being studied,” Paper Film & Foil Converter, 68, 10, (Apr 1994).

596. Weiss, H., “Increasing the wettability of film and foil webs, II,” Paper Film & Foil Converter, 61, 74-78, (Jul 1987).

1031. Weitzsacker, C.L., N. Dontula, A. Centeck, M.J. Ricj, and L.T. Drzal, “Utilising x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to investigate modified polymer surfaces,” in 20th Annual Anniversary Meeting, 641-643, Adhesion Society, 1997.

1882. Wells, R.K., J.P.S. Badyal, I.W. Drummond, K.S. Robinson, and F.J. Street, “Plasma oxidation of polystyrene vs. polyethylene,” J. Adhesion Science and Technology, 7, 1129-1137, (1993) (also in Plasma Surface Modification of Polymers: Relevance to Adhesion, M. Strobel, C.S. Lyons, and K.L. Mittal, eds., p. 113-122, VSP, Oct 1994).

Polyethylene and polystyrene film surfaces have been plasma-oxidized and subsequently characterized by X-ray core level and valence band spectroscopies. The extent of polyethylene surface oxidation was found to be dependent on the power of the oxygen glow discharge employed and the length of time that the treated sample was left exposed to air prior to analysis. In marked contrast to these observations, plasma-oxidized polystyrene surfaces were much less dependent on the oxygen glow discharge power and were also found to retain their oxygenated character over much longer periods of ageing. These differences in oxidative behaviour are explained in terms of the molecular structures of the respective polymers.

2725. Weng, M., and Q. Shen, “Effect of liquid surface tension data on the validity and accuracy of solid surface tension components and parameters in the application of the van Oss-Chaudhury-Good approach,” J. Adhesion Science and Technology, 28, 2248-2268, (2014).

This paper studies the effects on valid domain of contact angles and error limits of solid surface tension components and parameters (SSTCPs)/square roots of SSTCPs (SQSSTCPs) from the changes in liquid surface tension components and parameters (LSTCPs) when applying the van OssChaudhuryGood (vOCG) approach. The results of maximum absolute errors and maximum relative errors (MREs) in SQSSTCPs/SSTCPs, induced by errors in LSTCPs or contact angles, show that most SQSSTCPs/SSTCPs can be evaluated at moderate accuracy from the lowest condition number liquid triplets, assuming that |Δθi| = 1° and  = 0.1 mN/m (i = 1, 2, 3, k = LW, +, −). This confirms the validity of the vOCG approach. The accuracy of each SQSSTSCP/SSTCP declines with increasing θi or decreasing parameter when θi > 0 or a critical value, provided the other two contact angles are kept fixed. This explains the underlying reasons for negative SQSSTCPs. At the scale proposed by vOCG, dimethyl sulphoxide is not suggested for use. Comparing with the MREs obtained at vOCG scale, considering the acidity of diiodomethane improves the accuracy of ; using the scales proposed by Lee and Shen do not affect the accuracy of SSTCPs, but using the scale proposed by Della Volpe et al. improves the accuracy of SSTCPs at low θ2 and θ3 while declines that at high ones. For a low , low surface tension apolar liquid is preferred for high accuracy. The dependence of the accuracy of SQSSTCPs/SSTCPs on contact angles suggests the importance of considering contact angle in accuracy evaluation.

384. Wenzel, R.N., “Surface roughness and contact angle (letter),” J. Physical Chemistry, 53, 1466-1467, (1949).

Dependence of the wetting characteristics of a solid on the roughness of its surface is inherent in the fundamental theory of wetting action (R. N. Wenzel: Ind. Eng. Chem. 28, 988 (1936)). This is immediately apparent when analyses of wetting phenomena take into account the actual areas of the several inter-faces involved as well as their respective specific energy values. The same method of analysis has led to quantitative evaluationof the effects of surface heterogeneity and surface porosity (A. B. D. Cassie and S. Baxter: Trans. Faraday Soc. 40, 546 (1944)).

2294. Wenzel, R.N., “Resistance of solid surfaces to wetting by water,” Industrial & Engineering Chemistry, 28, 988-994, (1936).

In the waterproofing of light-weight I woven or knitted fabrics, it is generally essential to preserve the airporosity of the material. The waterproofness that can be effected is therefore definitely limited by the size of the openings, because water will readily pass through if the pressure behind it is sufficient to break the surface film across the openings. Water will penetrate, however, at a much lower pressure or even against pressure, if it can spread over the surface of the threads from one face of the cloth to the other. The waterproofing of open fabrics, therefore, presents the problem of preventing this spreading of water over the thread surfaces. The desired effect is attained by depositing on the fabric some chemical substance that has of itself this ability to resist wetting.

For practical reasons, preparations intended for use in waterproofing open fabrics commonly consist of emulsions. In these preparations the active water-repellent agent is combined with other ingredients whose presence is required to ensure the desired fluidity and stability in the emulsion, to provide proper pH control, to increase the permanence of the proofing effect, and to modify the appearance and feel imparted to the finished fabric. These auxiliary constituents may impair, or they may enhance, the effectiveness of the proofing treatments. The complexity of the problem thus presented makes it desirable to study carefully the wetting characteristics of materials selected for this use.

735. Wertheimer, M.R., L. Martinu, J.E. Klemberg-Sapieha, and G. Czeremuszkin, “Plasma treatment of polymers to improve adhesion,” in Adhesion Promotion Techniques: Technological Applications, K.L. Mittal and A. Pizzi, eds., 139-174, Marcel Dekker, Feb 1999.

In recent years, we have witnessed a remarkable growth in the use of the synthetic organic polymers in technology, both for high-technology and for consumerproduct applications (see Fig. 1 [1]). Polymers have been able to replace more traditional engineering materials such as metals, because of their many desirable physical and chemical characteristics (high strength-to-weight ratio, resistance to corrosion, etc.) and their relatively low cost. However, fundamental differences between polymers and other engineering solids have also created numerous important technical challenges, which manufacturing operations must overcome. An important example is the characteristic low surface energy of polymers and their resulting intrinsically poor adhesion [2–6]; the term “adhesion,” as it is used here and elsewhere in this text, may be briefly defined as the mechanical resistance to separation of a system of bonded materials [7]. Because adhesion is largely a surface property, often governed by a layer of molecular dimensions, it is possible to modify this near-surface region without affecting the desirable bulk properties of the material.

869. Wertheimer, M.R., and R. Bartnikas, “Degradation effects of plasma and corona on polymers,” in Plasma Processing of Polymers (NATO Science Series E: Applied Sciences, Vol. 346), d'Agostino, R., P. Favia, and F. Fracassi, eds., 435-452, Kluwer Academic, Nov 1997.

Low-pressure plasma processing of materials can be divided into three categories, namely (A) etching (removal of material),(B) deposition (addition of new material to a surface), and (C) modification (morphological, structural, and physicochemical change of the surface or near-surface region). In industries which make extensive use of low-pressure plasmas (for example, in the manufacture of integrated circuits-IC, the treatment of polymers for improved adhesion, etc), the above-named changes are deliberate and highly beneficial. However, there exist many instances where treatment can turn into a liability, or where plasma-chemical changes occur involuntarily and are a priori detrimental. The main objective of this chapter is to sensitize the reader to the existence of circumstances where plasma effects can be deleterious, for example:(1) Corona discharges, also known as silent discharges or dielectric barrier discharges, are a form of plasma which occurs when insulating materials are exposed to an alternating source of high voltage (~ 10 kV). Corona is comprised of multitudes of ultra-rapid (~ 100 ns), narrow (~ 100 μm) filamentary micro-discharges, which impinge upon the dielectric surface. Since the 1950s corona is being used commercially for treating polymeric webs up to 8 m in width, so as to render them printable (process category (C) above). However, corona treatment (like its low-pressure counterpart) can be detrimental if" overtreatment" occurs: If the reagent gas, like ambient air, contains oxygen, low-molecular-weight oxidized materials (LMWOM) form on the surface, and these can give rise to a weak boundary layer. This laboratory has compared corona and glow discharge treatment of LDPE and PET, using peel strength and XPS measurements, and has found similar" optimum" treatment criteria for both types of processes: High treatment (oxidation) levels could be correlated with elevated concentrations of acidic (O= C-O) reaction products and low peel strength.(2)

385. Westerdahl, C.A.L., J.R. Hall, E.C. Schramm, and D.W. Levi, “Gas plasma effects on polymer surfaces,” J. Colloid and Interface Science, 47, 610-620, (1974).

Low-temperature radiofrequency excited gas plasma was applied to the surfaces of a number of polymers. Polymers that are known to crosslink as well as those that only degrade under irradiation were included in the investigation. Surface changes were studied by viscosity, gel content, and contact-angle measurements. Changes in adhesive bond strength were used as a measure of overall practical effects of plasma treatment. In each case the response of the polymer surface to an oxidizing (oxygen) and a nonoxidizing (helium) plasma environment is discussed. Further indications of the nature of the surface changes were suggested by statistical treatment of the bond-strength data.

386. Wetterman, R.P., “Electrical surface treatment of polyolefin packaging materials for improved adhesion and printing,” J. Packaging Technology, 6, 22-25, (Nov 1990).

2057. Wetterman, R.P., “Contact angles measure component cleanliness,” Precision Clean, 21-24, (Oct 1997).

2482. Wetterman, R.P., “Surface tension measurement and coatings development,” Paint and Coatings Industry, 202-206, (Oct 1998).

910. Wettermann, R.P., “Electrical surface treatment of medical plastics,” Medical Device & Diagnostic Industry, (Oct 1990).

741. Wheale, S.H., J.P.S. Badyal, J. Bech, and N.H. Nilsson, “Atmospheric versus low-pressure plasma oxidation of rubber surfaces,” in Polymer Surfaces & Interfaces III, R.W. Richards and S.K. Peace, eds., 285-297, John Wiley & Sons, Jul 1999.

597. Whitehouse, S.L., “Advances in adhesion of thermoplastic elastomers to other substrates,” in ANTEC 93 (Volume 1), 928-932, Society of Plastics Engineers, 1993.

1398. Whiteside, D.L., “Corona treating of substrates,” in 1985 Polymers, Laminations and Coatings Conference Proceedings, 89, TAPPI Press, Aug 1985.

1911. Whitesides, G.M., H.A. Biebuyck, J.P. Folkers, and K.L. Prime, “Acid-base interactions in wetting,” J. Adhesion Science and Technology, 5, 57-69, (1991) (also in Acid-Base Interactions: Relevance to Adhesion Science and Technology, K.L. Mittal and H.R. Anderson Jr., eds., p. 229-242, VSP, Nov 1991).

The study of the ionization of carboxylic acid groups at the interface between organic solids and water demonstrates broad similarities to the ionizations of these groups in homogeneous aqueous solution, but with important systematic differences. Creation of a charged group from a neutral one by protonation or deprotonation (whether -NH3+ from -NH2 or -CO2- from -CO2H) at the interface between surface-functionalized polyethylene and water is more difficult than that in homogeneous aqueous solution. This difference is probably related to the low effective dielectric constant of the interface (ε≃9) relative to water (ε≃80). It is not known to what extent this difference in ε (and in other properties of the interphase, considered as a thin solvent phase) is reflected in the stability of the organic ions relative to their neutral forms in the interphase and in solution, and to what extent in differences in the concentration of H+ and OH- in the interphase and in solution. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs)-especially of terminally functionalized alkanethiols (HS(CH2)nX) adsorbed on gold-provide model systems with relatively well-ordered structures that are useful in establishing the fundamentals of ionization of protic acids and bases at the interface between organic solids and water. These systems, coupled with new analytical methods such as photoacoustic calorimetry (PAC) and contact angle titration, may make it possible to disentangle some of the complex puzzles presented by proton-transfer reactions in the environment of the organic solid-water interphase.

598. Wightman, J.P., T.D. Lin, and H.F. Webster, “Surface chemical aspects of polymer/metal adhesion,” Intl. J. Adhesion and Adhesives, 12, 133-137, (Jul 1992).

This paper reports on a three-part study: (1) to determine the effect of surface pretreatment of BDS, a siloxane/polyimide copolymer, on adhesion; (2) to determine the extent of segregation of components of BDS against metal substrates; and (3) to determine the properties of ultrathin polymer films against metal substrates.

Surface pretreatment of bds films with aqueous NaOH etched away the top siloxane layer, roughening the polymer surface and producing surface functional groups. These changes resulted in increased wettability and peel strength. Siloxane segregation when bds films were formed against metal surfaces was in the order: Al > Ti > Zn. The relative acidity of the metal oxides as measured by polyvinyl chloride adsorption was in the same order. Reflection-absorption measurements using Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy were found to be useful in studying the crystallinity of thin polyphenylene sulphide (pps) films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to show that failure occurred through a thin layer of residual pps polymer close to the copper oxide substrate.

2016. Wilhoit, D.L., and V.J. Dudenhoeffer, “Process of corona treating a thermoplastic tubular film,” U.S. Patent 5407611, Apr 1995.

A meat product package including an enclosing film having an EVA-containing inside surface and an in situ aqueous medium-cooked meat product in adhering relation to the film inside surface as the meat contacting and adhering surface. Starch particles are preferably dispersed across the meat contacting surface which has been both irradiated and subjected to corona treatment. A method for corona treating a thermoplastic tube inside surface in which small particles within the flat tube separate opposite surfaces providing voids, and the electric discharge crosses the flat tube through the voids.

705. Willard, N.P., A.R. Balkenende, H.J.A.P. van de Boogaard, and M. Scholten, “Assessment of the surface free energy of low-energy solids by means of contact angle measurements,” Presented at First International Congress on Adhesion Science and Technology, Oct 1995.

 

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