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1306. Kwok, D.Y., D. Li, and A.W. Neumann, “Evaluation of the Lifshitz-van der Waals/acid-base approach to determine interfacial tensions,” Langmuir, 10, 1323-1328, (1994).

1312. Kwok, D.Y., L.K. Cheung, C.B. Park, and A.W. Neumann, “Study on the surface tensions of polymer melts using axisymmetric drop shape analysis,” Polymer Engineering and Science, 38, 757-764, (1998).

It is shown that Axisymmetric Drop Shape Analysis (ADSA) is well-suited for the study of polymer melt surface tensions. The technique is not restricted to equilibrium surface (interfacial) tensions; it is also suitable for measuring the time dependence (or kinetics) of surface tension of polymer melts. Results for three polymers, polypropylene, polyethylene, and polystyrene, at temperatures above 170°C are reported. Contrary to the well-known decrease of surface tension in low molecular weight surfactant solutions as a result of equilibration, an increase in the melt surface tension is observed under isothermal conditions.

779. Kwok, D.Y., and A.W. Neumann, “Contact angle measurements and contact angle interpretation: Relevance to the thermodynamics of adhesion,” in Acid-Base Interactions: Relevance to Adhesion Science and Technology, Vol. 2, K.L. Mittal, ed., 91-166, VSP, Dec 2000.

883. Kwok, D.Y., and A.W. Neumann, “Contact angle techniques and measurements,” in Surface Characterization Methods: Principles, Techniques, and Applications, Milling, A.J., ed., 37-86, Marcel Dekker, Aug 1999.

1095. Kwok, D.Y., and A.W. Neumann, “Contact angle measurements and criteria for surface energetic interpretation,” in Contact Angle, Wettability and Adhesion, Vol. 3, Mittal, K.L., ed., 117-160, VSP, Nov 2003.

1226. Kwok, D.Y., and A.W. Neumann, “Contact angle measurements and interpretation: Wetting behavior and solid surface tension for poly(alkyl methacrylate) polymers,” J. Adhesion Science and Technology, 14, 719-743, (2000).

Low-rate dynamic contact angles of a large number of liquids were measured on a poly(ethyl methacrylate) (PEMA) polymer using an automated axisymmetric drop shape analysis profile (ADSA-P). The results suggested that not all experimental contact angles can be used for the interpretation in terms of solid surface tensions: eight liquids yielded non-constant contact angles and/or dissolved the polymer on contact. From the experimental contact angles of the remaining four liquids, we found that the liquid-vapor surface tension times the cosine of the contact angle changes smoothly with the liquid-vapor surface tension, i.e. γlv cos ζ depends only on γlv for a given solid surface (or solid surface tension). This contact angle pattern is again in harmony with those from other methacrylate polymer surfaces of different compositions and side-chains. The solid-vapor surface tension of PEMA calculated from the equation-of-state approach for solid-liquid interfacial tensions was found to be 33.6 ± 0.5 mJ/m2 from the experimental contact angles of the four liquids. The experimental results also suggested that surface tension component approaches do not reflect physical reality. In particular, experimental contact angles of polar and nonpolar liquids on polar methacrylate polymers were employed to determine solid surface tension and solid surface tension components. Contrary to the results obtained from the equation-of-state approach, we obtained inconsistent values from the Lifshitz-van der Waals/acid-base (van Oss and Good) approach using the same sets of experimental contact angles.

1311. Kwok, D.Y., and A.W. Neumann, “A simple experimental test of the Lifshitz-van der Waals/acid-bsae approach to determine interfacial tensions,” Canadian J. Chemical Engineering, 74, 551-553, (1996).

A study was conducted which showed that the Lifshitz-van der Waals / acid-base approach yielded liquid-liquid interfacial tensions which were incompatible with experimental results. The approach allowed correct prediction of interfacial tensions for only four completely miscible liquid/liquid pairs. This result calls into question traditionally held interfacial tension theories, and points up the need for caution in the application to solid/liquid contact angle systems if an approach should fail the liquid/liquid test.

1319. Kwok, D.Y., and A.W. Neumann, “Contact angle measurement and contact angle interpretation,” Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 81, 167-249, (1999).

Recent progress in the correlation of contact angles with solid surface tensions are summarized. The measurements of meaningful contact angles in terms of surface energetics are also discussed. It is shown that the controversy with respect to measurement and interpretation of contact angles are due to the fact that some (or all) of the assumptions made in all energetic approaches are violated when contact angles are measured and processed. For a large number of polar and non-polar liquids on different solid surfaces, the liquid–vapor surface tension times cosine of the contact angle, γlvcosθ, is shown to depend only on the liquid–vapor surface tension γlv, and the solid–vapor surface tension γsv when the appropriate experimental techniques and procedures are used. Equations which follow these experimental patterns and which allow the determination of solid surface tensions from contact angles are discussed. Universality of these experimental contact angle patterns is illustrated; other reasons which may cause data to deviate from the patterns slightly are discussed. It is found that surface tension component approaches do not reflect physical reality. Assuming the fact that solid surface tension is constant for one and the same solid surface, experimental contact angle patterns are employed to deduce a functional relationship to be used in conjunction with Young's equation for determining solid surface tensions. The explicit form of such a relation is obtained by modifying Berthelot's rule together with experimental data; essentially constant solid surface tension values are obtained, independent of liquid surface tension and molecular structure. A new combining rule is also derived based on an expression similar to one used in molecular theory; such a combining rule should allow a better understanding of the molecular interactions between unlike solid–liquid pairs from like pairs. Existing static contact angles for 34 different types of solid surfaces from Zisman et al. are evaluated in terms of their solid surface tensions using experimental contact angle patterns. A FORTRAN computer program has been implemented to automate these procedures. It is found that literature contact angles do not have to be discarded completely; they can be used to determine solid surface tensions, with caution. The surface tensions for the 34 solid surfaces from Zisman et al. are also reported.

1325. Kwok, D.Y., and A.W. Neumann, “Contact angle interpretation in terms of solid surface tension,” Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 161, 31-48, (2000).

Recent experimental (low-rate) dynamic contact angles for 14 solid surfaces are interpreted in terms of their solid surface tensions. Universality of these experimental contact angle patterns is illustrated; other reasons that can cause data to deviate from the patterns are discussed. It is found that surface tension component approaches do not reflect physical reality. Assuming solid surface tension is constant for one and the same solid surface, experimental contact angle patterns are employed to deduce a functional relationship to be used in conjunction with the Young equation to determine solid surface tensions. The explicit form of such a relation is obtained by modifying Berthelot’s rule together with experimental data; essentially constant solid surface tension values are obtained, independent of liquid surface tension and molecular structure. A new combining rule is also derived based on an expression similar to one used in molecular theory; such a combining rule should allow a better understanding of the molecular interactions between unlike solid–liquid pairs.

1331. Kwok, D.Y., and A.W. Neumann, “Contact angles and surface energetics,” Progress in Colloid and Polymer Science, 109, 170-184, (1998).

Recent progress in the correlation of contact angles with solid surface tensions are summarized. The measurements of meaningful contact angles in terms of surface energetics are also discussed. It is shown that the apparent controversy with respect to measurement and interpretation of contact angles are due to the fact that some (or all) of the assumptions made in all energetic approaches [7–14] are violated when contact angles are measured and processed. For a large number of polar and non-polar liquids on different solid surfaces, the values of γ 1v cos θ are shown to depend only on γ 1v and γsv when the appropriate experimental techniques and procedures are used. An equation which follows these experimental patterns and which allows the determination of solid surface tensions from contact angles is discussed.

2547. Kwon, O.-J., S. Tang, S.-W. Myung, N. Lu, and H.-S. Choi, “Surface characteristics of polypropylene film treated by an atmospheric pressure plasma,” Surface and Coatings Technology, 192, 1-10, (Mar 2005).

After the atmospheric pressure plasma treatment of polypropylene (PP) film surface, we measured the contact angle of the surface by using polar solvent (water) and nonpolar solvent (diiodomethane). We also calculated the surface free energy of PP film by using the measured values of contact angles. And then we analyzed the change of the contact angle and surface free energy with respect to the conditions of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment. Upon each condition of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment, the contact angle and surface free energy showed optimum value or leveled off. Through AFM analysis, we also observed the change of surface morphology and roughness before and after plasma treatment. The surface roughness of PP film showed the highest value when the plasma treatment time was 90 s. Finally, we analyzed the change of chemical compositions on the PP film surface through XPS. As the result of analysis, we observed that polar functional groups, such as –CO, –C=O, and –COO were introduced on the PP film surface after atmospheric pressure plasma treatment.

2450. Kwon, O.-J., S.-W. Myung, C.-S. Lee, and H.-S. Choi, “Comparison of the surface characteristics of polypropylene films treated by Ar and mixed gas (Ar/O2) atmospheric pressure plasma,” J. Colloid and Interface Science, 295, 409-416, (Mar 2006).

In an attempt to modify the hydrophobic surface properties of polypropylene (PP) films, this study examined the optimum process parameters of atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) using Ar gas. Under optimized conditions, the effects of a mixed gas (Ar/O2) plasma treatment on the surface-free energy of a PP film were investigated as a function of the O2 content. The polar contribution of the surface-free energy of the PP film increased with increasing O2 content in the gas mixture. However, slightly more oxygen-containing polar functional groups such as CO, CO, and COO were introduced on the PP film surface by the Ar gas only rather than by the Ar/O2 gas mixture. In addition, AFM analysis showed that the Ar plasma treatment of the PP film produced the smoothest surface as a result of the relatively homogeneous etching process.

2778. LaPorte, R.J., Hydrophilic Polymer Coatings for Medical Devices, CRC Press, 1997.

207. Ladizeski, N.H., and I.M. Ward, “The adhesion behavior of high modulus polyethylene fibers following plasma and chemical treatment,” J. Materials Science, 24, 3763-3773, (1989).

Previously published pull-out adhesion results have been substantiated by more extensive studies of chemical and plasma treatment. Particular attention has been paid to the affect of geometrical variables on the values of adhesion obtained. The effect of strain rate has also been examined. Most of the results can be understood on a semi-quantitative basis by a simple extension of lap joint theory.

724. Lahooti, S., O.I. del Rio, P. Cheng, and A.W. Neumann, “Axisymmetric drop shape analysis (ADSA),” in Applied Surface Thermodynamics, Neumann, A.W., and J.K. Spelt, eds., 441-508, Marcel Dekker, Jun 1996.

Numerous methodologies have been developed for the measurement of contact angles and surface tensions as outlined in Chapter 8 and Refs. 1-4. Liquid surface tension measurements commonly involve the determination of the height of a meniscus in a capillary, or on a fiber or a plate. Contact angles are most commonly measured by aligning a tangent with the profile of a sessile drop at the point of contact with the solid surface. Other notable methods are the Wilhelmy slide (Chapter 8) and the capillary rise technique (Chapter 9). An overview of such techniques reveals that in most instances a balance must be struck between the simplicity, the accuracy, and the flexibility of the methodology.

2581. Lahti, J., “Dry toner-based electrophotographic printing on extrusion coated paperboard (PhD thesis),” Tampere University of Technology, 2005.

2756. Lahti, J., “The role of surface properties in digital printing on extrusion coated paperboard,” in Proceedings of the 9th TAPPI Advanced Coating Fundamentals Symposium, TAPPI Press, 2006.

2758. Lahti, J., “The effects of corona and flame treatment II: PE-HD and PP coated papers,” in 12th TAPPI European PLACE Conference Proceedings, 278-314, TAPPI Press, May 2009.

The most important function of a packaging material is to shield the product inside the package. Extrusion coated papers and paperboards are generally used in various consumer packages like food, medical and cosmetic packages. Extrusion coatings give a barrier against water, water vapour, aroma, grease, oxygen, etc. In addition to barrier properties, heat sealability and printability are important properties in packaging applications. From the point of view of printing, the dense and impervious structure of extrusion coatings is challenging: printing inks and toners do not penetrate into the coatings. The durability of the printed image is significant, because the image must withstand various converting operations when the package is constructed. The most common method for obtaining good ink or toner adhesion is to oxidise the surface. Surface treatments are used to change the chemical composition, increase surface energy, modify surface morphology and topography, or remove contaminants and weak boundary layers. Two widely used methods are corona discharge treatment and flame treatment. These processes generally cause physical and chemical changes in a thin surface layer without affecting the bulk properties. Treatments will increase surface energy and also provide polar molecular groups necessary for good bonds between ink/toner and polymer molecules. In addition to printability, surface treatments also affect the sealing properties, i.e. initial heat sealing temperature, initial hot tack temperature, sealing window and seal strength of extrusion coatings. Both the sealability of packaging material and the tightness of the seal are critical points in the manufacturing process of packages and of the final package. The printability must be obtained without losing the sealability properties. In the first part of this research (TAPPI European PLACE 2007), surface energy, printability and sealability of low density polyethylene (PE-LD) coated paperboard after flame and corona treatments were studied. In this second part of the study, the research is extended to other polyolefins, i.e. high-density polyethylene (PE-HD) and polypropylene (PP). The surface chemistry is evaluated with contact angle measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical profilometry are used to study the topographical and morphological changes on the surfaces. Furthermore, the heat sealing and hot tack properties, and water vapour barrier properties of the extrusion coatings are evaluated. The aim of this study is also to evaluate the printability of the extrusion coatings and to map out the role of surface modification in print quality formation. This study has concentrated on digital printing, particularly on the dry toner-based electrophotographic printing process. Flame treatment decreases the contact angle of water on PE-LD, PE-HD and PP coated papers more than corona treatment, but the lowest contact angle is obtained when the treatments are used simultaneously (i.e. co-effect of the treatments). Flame treatment deteriorates the sealability properties of PE-LD coated paper, whereas corona treatment improves sealability for example by decreasing the minimum heat sealing temperature. The sealability properties of PE-HD and PP coated papers are improved not only by corona treatment, but also by flame treatment. Flame treatment significantly improves the water vapour barrier of PEs. Where printability is concerned, it can be noticed that all the treatments improve rub-off resistance with PEs. With PE-LD flame is the most effective, and with PE-HD corona. With PP, the co-treatment gives the best result. Morphological changes in micro- and nano- scale were most observed on the flame treated PE-LD surface, whereas the electret phenomenon was observed on PE-LD, PE-HD and PP surfaces only after corona treatment.

1468. Lahti, J. A. Savolainen, J.P. Rasanen, T. Suominen, and H. Huhtinen, “The role of surface modification in digital printing on polymer-coated packaging board,” Polymer Engineering and Science, 44, 2052-2060, (Nov 2004).

Digital printing is increasingly being used for package printing. One of the major techniques of digital printing is dry-toner electrophotography. This paper evaluates the printability of three different extrusion coatings used for packaging boards: low-density polyethylene (PE-LD), ethylene methyl acrylate (E/MA) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Extrusion coatings in general have an impervious, chemically inert, nonporous surface with low surface energies that cause them to be non-receptive to bonding with toners. The most common methods used in improving the adhesion properties of polymer coatings are different surface treatments. These increase the surface energy and also provide the polar molecular groups necessary for good bonds between the toner and polymer molecules. The polymer coatings have been modified with electrical corona discharge treatment. The effects of corona on polymer surfaces and the correlation between surface modification and print quality have been evaluated. Results show that sufficiently high surface energy and surface-charge uniformity are necessary for even print quality and toner adhesion. E/MA and PET have the required surface-energy level without the corona treatment, but PE-LD needs surface modification in order to succeed in the electrophotographic process. E/MA also has exceptional surface-charge properties compared with PET and PE-LD. Polym. Eng. Sci. 44:2052–2060, 2004. © 2004 Society of Plastics Engineers.

2336. Lahti, J., K. Eiroma, T.-M. Tenhunen, M. Pykonen, M. Toivakka, and M. Tuominen, “Atmospheric plasma treatment of plastic packaging film: Effects on surface properties and UV inkjet printability,” Presented at 13th TAPPI European PLACE Conference, 2011.

2568. Lahti, J., M. Tuominen, and J. Kuusipalo, “The influence of atmospheric plasma treatment on digital print quality of extrusion coated paper,” in 2008 PLACE Conference Proceedings, 767-778, TAPPI Press, Sep 2008.

1052. Lahti, J., T. Penttinen, J. Rasanen, and A. Savolainen, “The role of surface modification in digital printing on polymer coated packaging boards,” in 2003 PLACE Conference and the Global Hot Melt Symposium, TAPPI Press, Sep 2003 (also in Polymer Engineering and Science, V. 44, p. 2052-2060, Nov 2004).

2210. Lahti, J., and M. Tuominen, “The effects of corona and flame treatment I: PE-LD coated packaging board,” in 11th European PLACE Conference Proceedings, TAPPI Press, May 2007.

The most important function of a packaging material is to shield the product inside the package. Extrusion coated paperboard is generally used in food, medical and cosmetic packages. Extrusion coatings give a barrier against water, water vapour, aroma, grease, oxygen, etc. In addition to barrier properties, heat sealability and printability are important properties in packaging applications. From point of view of printing, the dense and impervious structure of extrusion coatings is challenging: printing inks and toners do not penetrate into the coatings. The durability of the printed image is significant, because the image must withstand various converting operations when the package is constructed. The most common method for obtaining good ink adhesion is to oxidize the surface. Surface treatments are used to change the chemical composition, increase the surface energy, modify the crystalline morphology and surface topography, or remove the contaminants and weak boundary layers. Two widely used methods are electrical corona discharge treatment and flame treatment. These processes generally cause physical or chemical changes in a thin surface layer without affecting the bulk properties. Treatments will increase surface energy and also provide polar molecular groups necessary for good bonds between ink and polymer molecules. In addition to printability, surface treatments also affect the heat sealing properties of extrusion coatings. In this study, the surface chemistry of the extrusion coatings has been modified with corona and flame treatments. The effect of corona and flame treatment on surface energy has been evaluated with contact angle measurements. Surface energy has the habit of decreasing with time after treatment. In this work, the decay of surface energy and surface oxidation is followed for six months. ESCA and FTIR-ATR have been used to analyze oxidation and the surface chemical composition. Furthermore, the heat sealing and hot tack properties of the extrusion coatings are evaluated. The aim of this study is also to evaluate printability of extrusion coatings and to map out the role of surface modification in print quality formation. This study has concentrated on digital printing, particularly on dry toner-based electrophotographic printing process.

2970. Lai, J., B. Sunderland, J. Xue, et al, “Study on hydrophilicity of polymer surfaces improved by plasma treatment,” Applied Surface Science, 252, 3375-3379, (Mar 2006).

Surface properties of polycarbonate (PC), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) samples treated by microwave-induced argon plasma have been studied with contact angle measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanned electron microscopy (SEM). It is found that plasma treatment modified the surfaces both in composition and roughness. Modification of composition makes polymer surfaces tend to be highly hydrophilic, which mainly depended on the increase of ratio of oxygen-containing group as same as other papers reported. And this experiment further revealed that CDouble BondO bond is the key factor to the improvement of the hydrophilicity of polymer surfaces. Our SEM observation on PET shown that the roughness of the surface has also been improved in micron scale and it has influence on the surface hydrophilicity.

731. Laiho, E., and T. Ylanen, “Flame, corona, ozone - Do we need all pretreatments in extrusion coating?,” in Extrusion Coating Manual, 4th Ed., Bezigian, T., ed., 89-98, TAPPI Press, Feb 1999.

1648. Laiho, E., and T. Ylanen, “Flame, corona, ozone - do we need all pretreatments in extrusion coating?,” in 1997 Polymers, Laminations and Coatings Conference Proceedings, TAPPI Press, Aug 1997.

2734. Laimer, J., and H. Stori, “Recent advances in the research on non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma jets,” Plasma Processes and Polymers, 4, 266-274, (2007).

Recently, there has been increased interest in using atmospheric pressure plasmas for materials processing, since these plasmas do not require expensive vacuum systems. However, APGDs face instabilities. Therefore, special plasma sources have been developed to overcome this obstacle, which make use of DC, pulsed DC and AC ranging from mains frequency to RF. Recently, the APPJ was introduced, which features an α-mode of an RF discharge between two bare metallic electrodes. Basically, three different geometric configurations have been developed. A characterization of the APPJs and their applications is presented.

2774. Lamour, G., A. Hamraoui, A. Buvailo, Y. Xing, S. Keuleyan, V. Prokash, et al, “Contact angle measurements using a simplified experimental setup,” J. Chemical Education, 67, 1403-1407, (Dec 2010).

A basic and affordable experimental apparatus is described that measures the static contact angle of a liquid drop in contact with a solid. The image of the drop is made with a simple digital camera by taking a picture that is magnified by an optical lens. The profile of the drop is then processed with ImageJ free software. The ImageJ contact angle plugin detects the edge of the drop and fits its profile to a circle or an ellipse. The tangent to the triple line contact is calculated and drawn by the ImageJ software, thus, returning the value of the contact angle with acute precision on the measurement.

208. Lanauze, J.A., and D.L. Myers, “Ink adhesion on corona-treated polyethylene studied by chemical derivatization of surface functional groups,” J. Applied Polymer Science, 40, 595-611, (1990).

Corona discharge (CD) treated polyethylene films were examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and a variety of chemical derivatization techniques. The composition of the CD-treated surfaces were found to be relatively unaffected by aging at temperatures between 70 and 80°F. Ink adhesion testing of films treated under progressively more serve conditions indicated the efficiency of adhesion varied directly with the severity of treatment. Derivatization of CDtreated polyethylene films with pentaflurophenylhydrazine (PFPH) resulted in the formation of a stable hydrazone complex. The PFPH complex extends the detection limit for enolizable carbonyl groups ca. eight-fold and provides relative quantitation of the number of these groups on variously treated polyethylenes. Formation of the hydrazone complex destroyed ink adhesion, indicating that the complex had blocked the site responsible for chemical bonding to the ink. Adhesion of water-soluble printing inks to CD-treated polyethylene is a direct consequence of hydrogen bonding between enolic hydroxyls on the polymer surface and carbonyl groups of the ink.

2282. Lander, L.M., L.M. Siewierski, W.J. Brittain, and E.A. Vogler, “A systematic comparison of contact angle methods,” Langmuir, 9, 2237-2239, (Aug 1993).

1227. Landete-Ruiz, M.D., J.A. Martinez-Diez, M.A. Rodriguez-Perez, A. Miguel, et al, “Improved adhesion of low-density polyethylene/EVA foams using different surface treatments,” J. Adhesion Science and Technology, 16, 1073-1101, (2002).

The adhesion between a polyurethane (PU) adhesive and four foams containing different low-density polyethylene (LDPE)/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) blends was improved by using different surface treatments. UV-ozone, corona discharge, and low-pressure oxygen plasma treatments for different times were used to increase the surface energy of the foams. The low-pressure oxygen plasma was the most successful surface treatment to promote the adhesion of the foams. A reduced length of treatment was needed to improve the adhesion of the foams containing higher EVA content. The surface treatments produced a noticeable decrease in contact angle values due mainly to the creation of different carbon–oxygen moieties and to the formation of cracks/heterogeneities on the foams surfaces. After oxygen plasma, removal of non-polar material from EVA surfaces allowed to expose acetate groups which are likely to be important for increasing the adhesion of the foams.

509. Lane, J.M., and D.J. Hourston, “Surface treatments of polyolefins,” Progress in Organic Coatings, 21, 269-284, (Mar 1993).

3042. Lang, M., “Surface tension and wettability,” PFFC, 29, 8-12, (May 2024).

2520. Lange, J., and Y. Wyser, “Recent innovations in barrier technologies for plastic packaging - a review,” Packaging Technology and Science, 16, 149-158, (Sep 2003).

The barrier solutions presently available on the market all have their drawbacks, e.g. cost, water-sensitivity, opacity or perceived environmental bad-will. At the same time there is a trend to use more plastic-based packaging materials for different applications, e.g. as replacements for metal and glass containers. This situation has stimulated the industry to provide new, more efficient barrier solutions. The innovations go along five major lines: (a) thin, transparent vacuum-deposited coatings; (b) new barrier polymers as discrete layers; (c) blends of barrier polymers and standard polymers; (d) organic barrier coatings; and (e) nanocomposite materials. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the different approaches, outlining the principle behind each barrier technology, its performance, its potential and the companies developing and producing the materials. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/pts.621

209. Langmuir, I., “Overturning and anchoring of monolayers,” Science, 87, 493-500, (1938).

510. Langmuir, I., Collected Works, Pergamon Press, 1961.

2255. Langowskia, H.-C., “Surface modification of polymer films for improved adhesion of deposited metal layers,” J. Adhesion Science and Technology, 25, 223-243, (2011).

Plasma treatment and vacuum Al deposition on films from biaxially oriented polypropylene is a multistep large scale industrial process, mainly ending up in packaging film laminates. As atmospheric plasma treatment processes suffer from lack of reproducibility, low pressure plasma treatment processes that can be operated in-line with the metal deposition are being developed. Process development is difficult, because the final packaging film laminate has to deliver optimum properties of adhesion as well as of the barrier against oxygen and water vapor permeation. As a typical production run involves tens of thousands to up to one hundred thousand square meters of film, experiments on an industrial scale are expensive, so smaller scale experimental processes are needed, which so far do not match well enough with industrial process characteristics. Moreover, bonding mechanisms between the treated substrate film and the deposited Al layer are not sufficiently understood. This paper describes the sequence in development and optimization of substrate films and plasma treatment that has been performed on an experimental as well as on an industrial scale. A sufficient correlation between experimental and industrial scales was achieved, which helps to perform development and optimization on a small scale before scaling up to industrial processes. However, improvement is still needed both in fundamental understanding of the aluminum–polypropylene interface as well as in experimental equipment and methodology.

1355. Larner, M., and S.L. Kaplan, “The challenge of plasma processing - its diversity,” Presented at ASM Materials and Processes for Medical Devices Conference, Aug 2004.

1540. Laroussi, M., K.H. Schoenbach, U. Kogelschatz, R.J. Vidmar, S. Kuo, et al, “Current applications of atmospheric pressure air plasmas,” in Non-Equilibrium Air Plasmas at Atmospheric Pressure, K.H. Becker, U. Kogelschatz, K.H. Schoenbach, and R.J. Barker, eds., 537-678, Institute of Physics, Nov 2004.

2274. Laroussi, M., and T. Akan, “Arc-free atmospheric pressure cold plasma jets: A review,” Plasma Processes and Polymers, 4, 777-788, (Nov 2007).

Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jets/plumes are playing an increasingly important role in various plasma processing applications. This is because of their practical capability to provide plasmas that are not spatially bound or confined by electrodes. This capability is very desirable in many situations such as in biomedical applications. Various types of ‘cold’ plasma jets have, therefore, been developed to better suit specific uses. In this paper a review of the different cold plasma jets developed to date is presented. The jets are classified according to their power sources, which cover a wide frequency spectrum from DC to microwaves. Each jet is characterized by providing its operational parameters such as its electrodes system, plasma temperature, jet/plume geometrical size (length, radius), power consumption, and gas mixtures used. Applications of each jet are also briefly covered.

 

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