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ACCU DYNE TEST ™ Bibliography

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2494. Tuominen, M., J. Lavonen, H. Teisala, M. Stepien, and J. Kuusipalo, “Atmospheric plasma treatment in extrusion coating, part 1: Surface wetting and LDPE adhesion to paper,” in Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treatment of Polymers: Relevance to Adhesion, M. Thomas and K.L. Mittal, eds., 329-354, Scrivener, May 2013.

2491. Thomas, M., M. Eichler, K. Lachmann, J. Borris, A. Hinze, and C.-P. Klages, “Adhesion improvement by nitrogen functionalization of polymers using DBD-based plasma,” in Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treatment of Polymers: Relevance to Adhesion, M. Thomas and K.L. Mittal, eds., 251-274, Scrivener, May 2013.

2488. Simor, M., and Y. Creyghton, “Treatment of polymer surfaces with surface dielectric barrier discharge plasmas,” in Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treatment of Polymers: Relevance to Adhesion, M. Thomas and K.L. Mittal, eds., 27-82, Scrivener, May 2013.

2465. Sabreen, S.R., “The fundamentals of flame treatment,”, May 2013.

2466. Sabreen, S.R., “How coloring plastic affects secondary processes,”, Apr 2013.

2464. Sabreen, S.R., “Cold gas plasma treatment - best practices (Best of the Plastics Decorating blog),” Plastics Decorating, 19, (Apr 2013).

2458. no author cited, “Surface energy & poor adhesion: Corona treatment optimizes film's performance on press,” Flexo, 38, 46-47, (Mar 2013).

2515. Williams, T.S., H. Yu, and R.F. Hicks, “Atmospheric pressure plasma activation of polymers and composites for adhesive bonding: A critical review,” Rev. Adhesion and Adhesives, 1, 46-84, (Feb 2013).

A review is presented on the surface preparation of polymers and composites using atmospheric pressure plasmas. This is a promising technique for replacing traditional methods of surface preparation by abrasion. With sufficient exposure to the plasma afterglow, polymer and composite surfaces are fully activated such that when bonded and cured with epoxy adhesives, they undergo 100% cohesive failure in the adhesive. Depending on the material, the lap shear strength and crack delamination resistance (GIC) can be increased several fold over that achieved by either solvent wiping or abrasion. In some cases, a plasma-responsive layer must be incorporated into the top resin layer of the composite to achieve maximum bond strength to the adhesive. Adhesion does not correlate well with water contact angle or surface roughness. Instead it correlates with the fraction of the polymer surface sites that are oxidized and converted into active functional groups, as determined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy.

837. Etzler, F.M., “Determination of the surface free energy of solids,” Reviews of Adhesion and Adhesives, 43, 3-45, (Feb 2013).

Knowledge of the surface free energy of solids is important to understanding a number of processes involving wetting and adhesion to solid surfaces. The measurement of surface free energy has been a subject of active interest for at least 50 years. Despite the importance of the problem to a variety of industries a universally accepted method or set of methods for determination of solid surface free energies has not been agreed upon. In this review article various methods that have been used for the calculation of surface free energies are discussed. The limitations and concerns for employment of each of these methods are furthermore highlighted. Of principal concern is the use of contact angles that meet the requirements to be Young’s contact angles and the mixing of quantities obtained by contact angle measurements with those obtained by IGC, as surface free energies obtained by IGC tend to be larger than those obtained from contact angle measurements. Calculated values from IGC data are presumably larger than those from contact angle data as IGC data are often collected at very low surface coverages.

2459. Wolf, R.A., “How do you modify a surface with plasma? (Best of the Plastics Decorating blog),” Plastics Decorating, 35, (Jan 2013).

2966. Yuan, Y., and T.R. Lee, “Contact angle and wetting properties,” in Surface Science Techniques, G. Bracco and B. Holst, eds., 3-34, Springer, 2013.

This chapter highlights a variety of techniques that are commonly used to measure contact angles, including the conventional telescope-goniometer method, the Wilhelmy balance method, and the more recently developed drop-shape analysis methods. The various applications and limitations of these techniques are described. Notably, studies of ultrasmall droplets on solid surfaces allow wetting theories to be tested down to the nanometer scale, bringing new insight to contact angle phenomena and wetting behavior.

2962. Williams, D.L., and T.M. O'Bryon, “Cleanliness verification on large surfaces: Instilling confidence in contact angle techniques,” in Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning: Methods of Cleaning and Cleanliness Verification, R. Kohli and K.L. Mittal, eds., 163-181, Elsevier, 2013.

The sessile drop contact angle measurement is a useful and reliable method for surface energy determination and cleanliness verification. A review of the available methods, commercial instruments, patents, and literature describing the state of the art in contact angle measurement is followed by a description of contact angle measurement techniques that have been modified for use on large surfaces. The negative effects of these changes on accuracy and precision are discussed, and remedies are proposed including the use of standard reference objects that mimic the size and shape of sessile drops. The combination of these validation tools and the modified contact angle measuring techniques fills a need for robust, production-line capable cleanliness verification methods.

2861. Soon, C.F., W.I.W. Omar, N. Nayan, H. Basri, M.B. Narawi, and K.S. Tee, “A bespoke contact angle measurement software and experimental setup for determination of surface tension,” Procedia Technology, 11, 487-494, (2013).

Contact angle measurement has wide application in studying the wettability of a surface. This paper presents a contact angle measurement system developed using simple apparatus. The system consists of a bespoke measurement software, USB microscope, motorized linear position slider and a sample holder with back lighting system. The advantages of this system include user friendly, compact size, allow manual and automatic measurements and cost effective. This system is established with the contact angle and surface tension measurement experiment which is based on Fox-Zisman theory. Different probe liquids were suggested and the critical surface tension of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polyimide were determined using both the software and the hardware system developed.

2706. Vitchuli, N., Q. Shi, J. Nowak, R. Nawalakhe, M. Sieber, M. Bourham, X. Zhang, and M. McCord, “Atmospheric plasma application to improve adhesion of electrospun nanofibers onto protective fabric,” J. Adhesion Science and Technology, 27, 924-938, (2013).

Nylon 6 electrospun nanofibers were deposited on plasma-pretreated woven fabric substrates with the objective of improving adhesion between them. The prepared samples were evaluated for adhesion strength and durability of nanofiber mats by carrying out peel strength, flex resistance, and abrasion resistance tests. The test results showed significant improvement in the adhesion of nanofiber mats on woven fabric substrates due to atmospheric plasma pretreatment. The samples also exhibited good flex and abrasion resistance characteristics. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and water contact angle analyses indicate that plasma pretreatment introduces radicals, increases the oxygen content on the substrate surface, and leads to formation of active chemical sites that may be responsible for enhanced cross-linking between the substrate fabric and the electrospun nanofibers, which in turn increases the adhesion properties. The work demonstrates that the plasma treatment of the substrate fabric prior to deposition of electrospun nanofiber mats is a promising method to prepare durable functional materials.

2705. Blackman, B.R.K., and F.J. Guild, “Forced air plasma treatment for enhanced adhesion of polypropylene and polyethylene,” J. Adhesion Science and Technology, 27, 2714-2726, (2013).

This paper describes our investigation of the effects of forced air plasma treatment on polypropylene and polyethylene. The morphology of the treated surfaces has been carefully examined using a variety of tools including optical profiling. The complex surface morphology was observed to change with increasing treatment and varying intensity of the treatment over the surface. Optimum treatment conditions have been deduced using surface energy determinations and can be compared with the morphological changes. Determinations of surface energy, both the polar and non-polar components, have been made after exposure to varying moisture conditions for varying times. Different results are obtained for different environments and from different materials. These results demonstrate that forced air plasma treatment is a highly effective means of increasing the surface energy of polymers, which can be long-lasting, provided the treated surfaces are kept in dry conditions.

2694. no author cited, “ASTM D7490: Standard test method for measurement of the surface tension of solid coatings, substrates and pigments using contact angle measurements,” ASTM, 2013.

2693. no author cited, “ASTM D7334: Standard practice for surface wettability of coatings, substrates and pigments by advancing contact angle measurement,” ASTM, 2013.

2590. Sabreen, S.R., “Surface wetting & pretreatment methods,”, 2013.

2487. Wolf, R.A., Atmospheric Pressure Plasma for Surface Modification, Scrivener, 2013.

2493. Rodriguez-Santiago, V., A.A. Bujanda, K.E. Strawhecker, and D.D. Pappas, “The effect of helium-air, helium-water vapor, helium-oxygen, and helium-nitrogen atmospheric pressure plasmas on the adhesion strength of polyethylene,” in Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treatment of Polymers, M. Thomas and K.L. Mittal, eds., 299-314, Scrivener, 2013.

2490. Moreno-Couranjou, M., N.D. Boscher, D. Duday, R. Maurau, E. Lecoq, and P. Choquet, “Atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization surface treatments by dielectric barrier discharge for enhanced polymer-polymer and metal-polymer adhesion,” in Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treatment of Polymers: Relevance to Adhesion, M. Thomas and K.L. Mittal, eds., 219-250, Scrivener, 2013.

2489. Inagaki, N., “Selective surface modification of polymeric materials by atmospheric-pressure plasmas: Selective substitution reactions on polymer surfaces by different plasmas,” in Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treatment of Polymers: Releance to Adhesion, M. Thomas and K.L. Mittal, eds., 83-156, Scrivener, 2013.

2492. Dubreuil, M., E. Bongaers, and D. Vandgeneugden, “Adhesion improvement of polypropylene through aerosol assisted plasma deposition at atmospheric pressure,” in Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treatment of Polymers: Relevance to Adhesion, M. Thomas and K.L. Mittal, eds., 275-298, Scrivener, 2013.

1825. Thomas, M., and K.L. Mittal, eds., Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treatment of Polymers, Scrivener, 2013.

2478. no author cited, “International Standard ISO 8296-2013: Plastics - film and sheeting - determination of wetting tension,” International Standards Organization, 2013.

2958. Kumara, S., B. Ma, Y.V. Seryuk, S.M. Gubanski, et al, “Surface charge decay on HTV silicone rubber: effect of material treatment by corona discharge,” IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, 19, 2189-2195, (Dec 2012).

Surface charge decay on thick flat samples of high temperature vulcanized silicone rubber is studied prior and after ac and dc corona pre-treatments. It is found that the charge decay rate on the material exposed to ac corona becomes much higher and sensitive to moisture content in the surrounding air. These features are associated with an increased surface conductivity and formation of a silica-like layer on the polymeric surface, both resulting from ac corona treatment. In contrast, characteristics of the charge decay on the material exposed to dc corona are found to be similar to that measured on untreated samples.

2998. Trantidou, T., T. Prodromakis, and C. Toumazou, “Oxygen plasma induced hydrophilicity of parylene-C thin films,” Applied Surface Science, 261, 43-51, (Nov 2012).

This paper investigates the surface modification of Parylene-C thin films under various oxygen plasma treatment conditions, such as power intensity (50:400 W) and exposure time (1:20 min). The extent of hydrophilicity was investigated through contact angle measurements, and correlations between treatment parameters, film thickness, restoration of hydrophobicity and etching rates were experimentally established. We also demonstrate the selective modification of Parylene-C films, facilitating distinct hydrophilic and hydrophobic areas with μm-resolution that can be exploited in self-alignment applications.

2462. Wolf, R.A., “Graphics adhesion advice for IML & shrink-sleeve films,” Converting Quarterly, 2, 48-51, (Oct 2012).

2461. Sabreen, S.R., “Q & A: Process solutions for adhesion bonding of nylon,”, Oct 2012.

2453. Bishop, C.A., “Surface energy and adhesion for metallization,”, Sep 2012.

2980. Kalapat, N., and T. Amornsakchai, “Surface modification of biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) film using acrylic acid-corona treatment, Part I. Properties and characterization of treated films,” Surface and Coatings Technology, 207, 594-601, (Aug 2012).

In this work, the acrylic acid (AAc)-corona discharge was carried out on biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) films by introducing AAc vapor into the corona region of a normal corona treater. Three different corona energies of 15.3, 38.2 and 76.4 kJ/m2 were studied. Surface properties of treated films were compared with those of air-corona treated films prepared with the same corona energies. The change in chemical composition on the film surface was characterized by curve-fitting of the ATR-FTIR spectra. The wettability of treated films, before and after aging in different environments, was observed by water contact angle and surface free energy. The surface morphology of air- and AAc-corona treated films was investigated using SEM and AFM techniques. Adhesion of the treated films to some other substrate was determined with the T-peeling test. It was found that the hydrophilicity of all treated films increased with increasing corona energy. AAc-corona treated films showed greater wettability than did the air-corona treated films and could retain the surface hydrophilicity for more than 90 days of aging under ambient conditions. The surface morphology of BOPP films changed after corona treatment into a globular structure. The AAc-corona treated films showed rougher surfaces due to surface oxidation and polymer formation, whereas, air-corona treated films displayed a similar structure but of smaller size due to the formation of low molecular weight oxidized materials (LMWOM) arising from the degradation of BOPP films. AAc-corona treated films showed greater peel strength than did the air-corona treated films.

2472. Mount, E.M. III, “Substrate secrets: Metallized films - aluminum layer contamination in wound rolls,”, Aug 2012.

2452. Sabreen, S.R., “Plastics surface energy wetting test methods,” Plastics Decorating, 23-24, (Jul 2012).

2445. Wolf, R.A., “Adhesion techniques for high performance materials and composites,”, Jul 2012.

2443. Mount, E.M. III, “Substrate secrets: Solubility parameters patent reference,”, Jun 2012.

2436. Mount, E.M. III, “Substrate secrets: Maintaining the surface energy of PET films,”, Jun 2012.

2447. Wolf, R.A., “Rx factor - automotive plastics and adhesion,”, May 2012.

2442. Mount, E.M. III, “Substrate secrets: Why are PP and PE not compatible?,”, May 2012.

2439. Wolf, R.A., “Testing surface treatment IQ,” Flexo, 37, 40-47, (May 2012).

2438. Cohen, E.D., “Web coating defects: Role of substrate in defect formation,” Converting Quarterly, 2, 63-65, (May 2012).


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