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ACCU DYNE TEST ™ Bibliography

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107. Fowkes, F.M., “Attractive forces at interfaces,” Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 56, 40-52, (Dec 1964).

2350. Dobson, F.E., C.A. Badavos, and R.S. Flint, “Corona treating of hollow plastic,” U.S. Patent 3157785, Nov 1964.

2349. Bryan, W.L., and D.E. Swarts, “Flame treatment of polyvinyl fluoride,” U.S. Patent 3153683, Oct 1964.

2348. Antokal, P., and M.F. Kritchever, “Surface and interior modification of thermoplastic resinous bodies,” U.S. Patent 3142630, Jul 1964.

2301. Johnson, R.E. Jr., and R.H. Dettre, “Contact angle hysteresis III: Study of an idealized heterogeneous surface,” J. Physical Chemistry, 68, 1744-1750, (Jul 1964).

2347. Guilliotte, J.E., and T.F. McLaughlin Jr., “Corona discharge apparatus for the surface treatment of plastic resins,” U.S. Patent 3133193, May 1964.

2771. Olsen, D.A., and A.J. Osteraas, “The critical surface tension of glass,” J. Physical Chemistry, 68, 2730-2732, (1964).

2045. Levine, M., G. Ilkka, and P. Weiss, “Relation of the critical surface tension of polymers to adhesion,” J. Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Letters, 2, 915-919, (1964).

1608. Sharpe, L.H., and H. Schonhorn, “Surface energetics, adhesion, and adhesive joints,” in Contact Angle, Wettability and Adhesion: The Kendall Award Symposium Honoring William A. Zisman (Advances in Chemistry Series 43), F.M. Fowkes and R.F. Gould, eds., 189-201, American Chemical Society, 1964.

Certain aspects of the adsorption theory of adhesion are developed more fully than has been done previously. The consequences of nonreciprocity of spreading are pointed out, and are used to develop a more general practical point of view with respect to the adhesive bonding of materials of low-surface free energy. The system epoxy adhesive-(nonsurface-treated) polyethylene, normally considered nonadherent, is investigated experimentally in some detail. It is shown how this system, without material modification, can be made adherent. An area of study for possible adhesives for materials of lowsurface free energy is suggested.

1607. Huntsberger, J.R., “The relationship between wetting and adhesion,” in Contact Angle, Wettability and Adhesion: The Kendall Award Symposium Honoring William A. Zisman (Advances in Chemistry Series 43), F.M. Fowkes and R.F. Gould, eds., 180-188, American Chemical Society, 1964.

Adhesion of polymers was determined as a function of temperature. The influence of the bonding times and temperatures indicates that the performance is established largely by the extent of wetting at the polymer-substrate interface. Considerations based on surface free energies show that most practical systems should exhibit complete wetting at equilibrium. The problem appears to involve establishing factors which retard or preclude wetting. Low substrate surface energy, high polymer viscosity, substrate topography, selective adsorption, and coacervation may be involved.

1606. Dettre, R.H., and R.E. Johnson Jr., “Contact angle hysteresis, 2: Contact angle measurements on rough surfaces,” in Contact Angle, Wettability and Adhesion: The Kendall Award Symposium Honoring William A. Zisman (Advances in Chemistry Series 43), F.M. Fowkes and R.F. Gould, eds., 136-144, American Chemical Society, 1964.

An experimental study of the wettability of rough surfaces over an extremely wide range of roughness is described. The theoretical wettability behavior of an idealized, rough surface agrees well with that of real surfaces. The theoretically predicted minimum in the curve of receding contact angle vs. roughness, for systems of high intrinsic contact angle, is experimentally verified.

1605. Johnson, R.E. Jr., and R.H. Dettre, “Contact angle hysteresis, 1: Study of an idealized rough surface,” in Contact Angle, Wettability and Adhesion: The Kendall Award Symposium Honoring William A. Zisman (Advances in Chemistry Series 43), F.M. Fowkes and R.F. Gould, eds., 112-135, American Chemical Society, 1964.

The effect of roughness on the wettability of an idealized sinusoidal surface has been studied with a digital computer. The equations of Wenzel and of Cassie and Baxter are discussed in relation to the model. The heights of the energy barriers between metastable states of a drop are seen to be of utmost importance in determining the magnitude of contact angle hysteresis.

1604. Fowkes, F.M., “Dispersion force contributions to surface and interfacial tensions, contact angles, and heats of immersion,” in Contact Angle, Wettability and Adhesion: The Kendall Award Symposium Honoring William A. Zisman (Advances in Chemistry Series 43), F.M. Fowkes and R.F. Gould, eds., 99-111, American Chemical Society, 1964.

1603. Good, R.J., “Theory for the estimation of surface and interfacial energies, VI: Surface energies of some fluorocarbon surfaces from contact angle measurements,” in Contact Angle, Wettability and Adhesion: The Kendall Award Symposium Honoring William A. Zisman (Advances in Chemistry Series 43), F.M. Fowkes and R.F. Gould, eds., 74-87, American Chemical Society, 1964.

1601. Zisman, W.A., “Relation of the equilibrium contact angle to liquid and solid constitution,” in Contact Angle, Wettability and Adhesion, F.M. Fowkes and W.A. Zisman, eds., 1-51, American Chemical Society, 1964.

A review of the author's investigations of the equilibrium contact angles of pure liquids on low- and high-energy solid surfaces, both bare and covered with a condensed monomolecular adsorbed film, includes the critical surface tension of wetting and the effect of homology on spreading by pure liquids, the causes of nonspreading on high-energy surfaces, and the existence and properties of autophobic liquids and oleophobic monolayers. Constitutive relationships are summarized in a table of critical surface tensions of wetting. The theory and application of the retraction method of preparing adsorbed monolayers from solution and the conditions for mixed films are presented. Studies of the wetting behavior of solutions of various surfactants and the resultant explanation of the function of a wetting agent are generalized to include nonaqueous systems. Following estimates of the reversible work of adhesion of liquids to solids, the part played by wetting in obtaining optimum adhesion by adhesives is outlined, and a fundamental explanation is given of constitutive effects in the development of strong adhesive joints. Future areas of research on wetting and adhesion are indicated.

1480. Fowkes, F.M., and R.F. Gould, eds., Contact Angle, Wettability and Adhesion: The Kendall Award Symposium Honoring William A. Zisman (Advances in Chemistry Series 43), American Chemical Society, 1964.

1334. Neumann, A.W., and P.J. Sell, “Relations between surface energetics,” Z. Physik. Chem., 227, 187-194, (1964).

1333. Neumann, A.W., “Methods for measuring surface energetics, part I: Contact angles,” Z. Physik. Chem. Neue Folge, 41, 339-352, (1964).

1332. Sell, P.J., and A.W. Neumann, “Estimation of surface and interfacial tensions of solids,” Z. Physik. Chem. Neue Folge, 41, 191-196, (1964).

1321. Neumann, A.W., “The temperature dependence of surface energetics,” in Fourth International Congress of Surface Activity, 335-341, 1964.

2313. Pajfey, A.J., “Electrical treatment of polyethylene,” U.S. Patent 3111471, Nov 1963.

2776. Shafrin, E.G., and W.A. Zisman, “Upper limits for the contact angles of liquids and solids (NRL Report 5985),” U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Sep 1963.

1918. Fort, T., Jr., and H.T. Patterson, “A simple method for measuring solid-liquid contact angles,” J. Colloid Science, 18, 217-222, (Mar 1963).

400. Zisman, W.A., “Adhesion,” Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 55, 18-38, (1963).

120. Gardon, J.L., “Relationship between cohesive energy densities of polymers and Zisman's critical surface tensions (notes),” J. Physical Chemistry, 67, 1935-1936, (1963).

106. Fowkes, F.M., “Additivity of intermolecular forces at interfaces, I. Determination of the contribution to surface and interfacial tensions of dispersion forces in various liquids,” J. Physical Chemistry, 67, 2538-2541, (1963).

1470. Crolius, V.G., W.E. Eberling, and R.C. Parsons, “The effect of processing variables on the adhesion strength of polyethylene coated aluminum foil,” TAPPI J., 45, 351-356, (May 1962).

2311. Dewey, B., “Method and apparatus for treating surfaces,” U.S. Patent 3017339, Jan 1962.

660. Zisman, W.A., “Constitutional effects on adhesion and cohesion,” in Adhesion and Cohesion, Weiss, P., ed., 176+, Elsevier, 1962.

The effect of varying the chemical constitution of a material on its ability to adhere may be determined to a good first approximation by the nature and packing density of the atoms or molecular radicals in the solid surface. This general conclusion was established by experiments on the wetting of liquids and solids, by the effect of the constitution of polymeric solids on friction, and by the overriding effect of monomolecular adsorbed films on adhesion. The reversible work of adhesion W sub A of a liquid to a low-energy solid can be calculated approximately from the contact angle and liquid surface tension. Both W sub A and the maximum capillary rise in pores and crevices are parabolic functions of the liquid surface tension. The resulting data are discussed in terms of surface constitutive effects, changes in W sub A and in the internal stress concentrations developed as the adhesives solidify.

634. Engel, J.H. Jr., and R.N. Fitzwater, “Adhesion of surface coatings as determined by the peel method,” in Adhesion and Cohesion, Weiss, P., ed., 89+, Elsevier, 1962.

533. McLaughlin, T.F., Jr., “The surface treatment of polyolefins for bonding to inks and adhesives,” E.I. DuPont de Nemours, 1962.

105. Fowkes, F.M., “Determination of interfacial tensions, contact angles, and dispersion forces by assuming additivity of intermolecular interactions at surfaces (letter),” J. Physical Chemistry, 66, 382, (1962).

2328. no author cited, “Guide to corona treatment,” Modern Plastics, 38, 199-202+, (Sep 1961).

2342. Von der Heide, J.C., “Guide to corona film treatment,” Plastics Engineering, 17, 199-205, (May 1961).

1780. Bernett, M.K., and W.A. Zisman, “Wetting properties of polyhexafluoropropylene,” J. Physical Chemistry, 65, 2266-2267, (1961).

510. Langmuir, I., Collected Works, Pergamon Press, 1961.

1919. Kawasaki, K., “Study of wettability of polymers by sliding of water drop,” J. Colloid Science, 15, 402-407, (Oct 1960).

2303. Parks, G.J., “Method and apparatus for treating plastic materials,” U.S. Patent 2939956, Jun 1960.

2302. Berthold, G.H., “Method for treating preformed polyethylene with an electrical glow discharge,” U.S. Patent 2935418, May 1960.

2346. Flonsky, S., “Treatment of surfaces of polyethylene resins,” U.S. Patent 2923964, Feb 1960.

 

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