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3021. Zenkiewicz, M., “Effects of electron-beam irradiation on wettability and surface free energy of a polypropylene film,” Intl. J. Adhesion and Adhesives, 25, 61-66, (Feb 2005).

Effect of the electron radiation generated by a high-voltage linear accelerator on the wettability, contact angle and surface free energy (SFE) of a biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) film was studied. Radiation doses of 25, 50, 100, 250, and 500kGy were used. Water, glycerol, formamide, diiodomethane, and α-bromonaphthalene were applied as measuring liquids. The calculations of SFE were made with the methods of Owens–Wendt and van Oss–Chaudhury–Good, using the results of measurements of the contact angle with various sets of the measuring liquids. Wettability tests were also performed. It was found that the contact angle decreased with the rising radiation dose for all the measuring liquids and the shapes of these dependences were similar to one another. However, significant quantitative differences were observed. The largest changes in the contact angle were detected in the dose range of up to 100kGy. The SFE values when measured with different methods and various measuring liquids differed generally in the whole range of the applied doses. Therefore, the surface free energy cannot be accepted as an absolute measure of the thermodynamic state of the surface layer of a radiation-modified BOPP film. Its values can be compared with one another only when they were determined with the same method and same measuring or standard liquids.

820. Zenkiewicz, M., J. Richert, P. Rytlewski, and K. Moraczewski, “Some effects of corona plasma treatment of polylactide/montmorillonite nanocomposite films,” Plasma Process and Polymers, 6, S387-S391, (Jun 2009).

Influence of the unit energy (Eu) of corona discharge used for modification of pure polylactide (PLA) and polylactide nanocomposite (PLAC) containing 5 wt% of an aluminosilicate nanofiller (Cloisite 30B) on water (ΘW) and diiodomethane (ΘD) contact angles as well as on surface free energy (γs) of these polymers was studied. ΘW and ΘD as advancing contact angles were measured with use of a goniometer while γs was calculated by the Owens–Wendt method. It was found that ΘW increased with the rising Eu while ΘD remained approximately constant. Assuming Eu = const, it could be stated that the increase in γs was much more evident for PLA than for PLAC. This increase resulted practically from the change in the polar component of γs because the dispersive component for the two materials only slightly decreased with increase in Eu.

840. Zenkiewicz, M., K. Moraczewski, J. Richert, and M. Stepczynska, “Effect of corona treatment on wettability and surface free energy of polylactid composites,” Przemysi Chemiczny, 91, 599-603, (Apr 2012).

The paper investigates the effect of corona discharge (CD) treatment on the properties of surface layer (SL) of polylactide (PLA) film. The modification of PLAwas carried out in the air and helium atmosphere and the results were compared on the basis of the assessment ofwettability, surface free energy (SFE) calculated using Owens-Wendt method aswell as the degree of oxidation (O/C) of the modified SL, determined by photoelectron spectroscopy.

805. Zenkiewicz, M., P. Rytlewski, J. Czuprynska, J. Polanski, T. Karasiewicz, and W. Engelhard, “Contact angle and surface free energy of electron-beam irradiated polymer composites,” Polimery, 53, 446-451, (Jun 2008).

The effects of the electron radiation dose and of compatibilizers on the contact angle and surface free energy (SFE) of the composites made of low-density polyethylene (PE-LD), high-density polyethylene (PE-HD), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) were studied. Use of the high-energy electron radiation with doses up to 300kGy and of compatibilizers was done to reach better mechanical and adhesion properties of the composites studied and, at the same time, to investigate the possibility of applying of this technique in the processes of polymeric materials recycling. The compatibilizers were the styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene elastomer grafted with maleic anhydride (SEBS-g-MA), added at the amounts of 5, 10 or 15 wt.%, and trimethylol propane trimethylacrylate (TMPTA), added at the amounts of 1, 2 or 3 wt.%. The effects, discussed in the present article, are: enhancement of wettability and increase in SFE of the composites studied. It was found that the contact angle steadily decreased and SFE of the composites increased with the rising dose of the electron radiation and that TMPTA intensified these tendencies.

961. Zenkiewicz, M., and J. Dzwonkowski, “Experimental evaluation of the process of decohesion of adhesive joints with polymer films,” Polimery, 45, 802-807, (2000).

Acrylic adhesive/PE film joints were prepared by using PE films preactivated by corona discharges. The tear-off work, a measure of strength of the joint, is the sum of several terms; the major terms include the work of adhesion and the work of deformation (here: stretching of film) involved in the tear-off process. The tear-off work (P-o, Fig.5) and the stretching work (P-r, Fig. 6) were determined for films that varied from 50 to 150 mum in thickness, in relation to specific treatment energies (E-j) ranging up to 7.5 kJ/m2. Within the interval 0 < E-j < 3 kJ/m2, P-r rises in an approximately linear way. As E-j is increased, evaluation of the unit adhesion work from tear-off tests becomes more and more burdened with error. Within the range of E-j adopted in technical preparation of upper layers of PE films (E-j = 2 kJ/m2), the error is kept within 9% and is only slightly related to film thickness.

967. Zenkiewicz, M., and J. Golebiewski, “Use of photoelectron spectroscopy in studies of the depth profile of polypropylene film,” Polimery, 44, 246-254, (1999).

2846. Zhai, M., and G.B. McKenna, “Surface energy of a polyurethane as a function of film thickness,” Presented at ANTEC - The Plastics Conference, Apr 2014.

1843. Zhang, C., B. Li, F. Yan, L. Wu, and O. Zhang, “Study of surface hydrophilicity and mechanical properties of polypropylene modified by peregal,” PMSE Preprints, 100, 461-462, (Mar 2009).

2564. Zhang, C., and K. Fang, “Surface modification of polyester fabrics for inkjet printing with atmospheric-pressure air/Ar plasma,” Surface and Coatings Technology, 203, 2058-2063, (Apr 2009).

Without any preprocessing, polyester fabric has a lower ability to hold on water and inks due to the smooth morphology and chemistry property of polyester fibers. Therefore, patterns directly printed with pigment inks have poor color yields and bleed easily. Plasma surface treatment of polyester fabrics was carried out in composite atmosphere with air and 10% Ar under different experimental conditions. After plasma treatment the samples were printed with pigment inks. The results show that surface-modified polyester fabrics exhibited enhanced color yields and excellent pattern sharpness. SEM and XPS analyses indicated that this improved color performance was mainly contributed by not only the etching effect but also oxygen-containing polar groups induced onto fiber surfaces through plasma treatment. Thereby the surface modification of polyester fabrics using air/Ar plasma offers a potential way to fabric pretreatment for pigment inkjet printing with the advantages of environmental friendly and energy saving over traditional pretreatment methods.

2412. Zhang, D., P.D. Spence, Q. Sun, and L.C. Wadsworth, “Plasma treatment of polymer materials for increased dyeability,” U.S. Patent 6479595, Nov 2002.

978. Zhang, D., Q. Sun, and L.C. Wadsworth, “Mechanism of corona treatment on polyolefin films,” Polymer Engineering and Science, 38, 965-970, (Jun 1998).

This paper reviews recent studies on the mechanism of corona treatment of polyolefin films, specifically the chemical and physical changes of this process and the self-adhesion mechanism. Corona discharge of polymeric films introduces polar groups into the surfaces, which increases the surface energy and, as a consequence, improves substrate wettability and adhesion. The main chemical mechanism of corona treatment is oxidation. In addition, corona treatment can crosslink surface regions and increase the film cohesive strength.

2094. Zhang, D., S.M. Dougal, and M.S. Yeganeh, “Effects of UV radiation and plasma treatment on a polystyrene surface studied by IR-visible sum frequency generation spectroscopy,” Langmuir, 16, 4528-4532, (2000).

IR−visible sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy was used to study surface modification of polystyrene by its exposure to a UV light source or plasma. It was found that the polystyrene surface underwent dramatic changes after exposure to these treatments, as evidenced by marked changes in the surface SFG spectra. Before the treatments, the surface spectrum showed a pronounced peak at 3068 cm-1 which is characteristic of the symmetric stretch of the aromatic C−H of polystyrene. This peak decreased markedly, and other vibrational bands associated with the CH2 and CH3 groups appeared after the treatments. The observed spectral changes provided direct evidence of surface reactions involving the aromatic ring. In addition, our data showed that the degrees of oxidation of the polystyrene surface were different with the two processes. The oxidation to a higher oxidation state, resulting in the formation of carbonyl/carboxyl species, was observed with plasma treatment but not with UV irradiation. This difference was also reflected in contact angle measurements. Before the treatments, the contact angle was 95 ± 4°. It decreased to 45 ± 4° and to less than 10° with UV irradiation and plasma treatment, respectively. The different pathways for the two treatments are discussed. In addition, the kinetics of photooxidation of the polystyrene surface was measured in situ, yielding a half-life of 15 min, which is much shorter than that of the bulk.

1418. Zhang, J., and D.Y. Kwok, “Study of contact angles, contact line dynamics and interfacial liquid slip by a mean-field free-energy lattice Boltzmann model,” in Contact Angle, Wettability and Adhesion, Vol. 4, K.L. Mittal, ed., 3-28, VSP, Jul 2006.

We summarize here a mean-field representation of fluid free-energy to a lattice Boltzmann scheme recently proposed for interfacial studies. The interfacial behaviors obtained from this new multi-phase lattice Boltzmann model (LBM) were validated by means of the Laplace equation of capillarity and the capillary wave dispersion relation. Applications of this mean-field LBM to various interfacial studies are reviewed, including wettability on heterogeneous surfaces, self-propelled drop movement, contact line dynamics and solid–liquid interfacial slip. The mean-field LBM simulates systems with better physical reality in terms of solid–liquid interactions and could be an alternative for simulating interfacial phenomena.

811. Zhang, J.-Y., H. Esrom, U. Kogelschatz, and G. Emig, “Modifications of polymers with UV excimer radiation from lasers,” J. Adhesion Science and Technology, 9, 1179-1218, (1995) (also in Polymer Surface Modification: Relevance to Adhesion, K.L. Mittal, ed., p.153-184, VSP, May 1996).

1903. Zhang, J.-Y., H. Esrom, U. Kogelschatz, and G. Emig, “Modification of polymers with UV excimer radiation from lasers,” J. Adhesion Science and Technology, 8, 1179-1210, (1994).

Photochemical dry etching and surface modification of various polymers, e.g. polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), polyimide (PI), polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were investigated with coherent and incoherent excimer UV sources. Ablation rates of PMMA were measured as a function of laser fluence and laser pulse at the wavelength λ = 248 nm (KrF*). Decomposition and etch rates of PMMA and PI were determined as a function of UV intensity and exposure time at three different wavelengths λ = 172 nm (Xe*2), λ = 222 nm (KrCl*) and λ = 308 nm (XeCl*). The transmittance of the polymeric films was determined with a UV-spectrophotometer after different exposure times. The morphology of the exposed polymers was investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The gaseous products occurring during UV exposure were measured using mass spectrometry (MS). Chemical surface changes of the photoetched PMMA were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The mechanism of the photo-oxidation process of PMMA is discussed. The etching of PMMA can be explained as a result of extensive photo-oxidation. The results are compared with those obtained from mercury lamp and excimer laser experiments. Good adhesion of electrolessly deposited metal layers was achieved by irradiation of the polymeric surfaces from incoherent UV source before depositing the metal layer.

2565. Zhang, S., F. Awaja, N. James, D.R. McKenzie, and A.J. Ruys, “Autohesion of plasma treated semi-crystalline PEEK: Comparative study of argon, nitrogen, and oxygen treatments,” Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 374, 88-95, (Jan 2011).

Semi-crystalline polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is of interest for providing hermetic sealing of implantable medical devices. Self bonding or autohesion is achieved by mild temperature and pressure treatment and is potentially useful to form joints in the encapsulation of active medical implants. The surfaces of PEEK films were treated in a radio-frequency (RF) plasma containing one of the gases Ar, N2 and O2, to achieve surface activation. The bond strength developed over the interface of PEEK films was evaluated by lap-shear testing. The effects of plasma conditions on the surface morphology, composition, and properties were determined using the profilometer, contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results obtained show that plasma treatment of the PEEK films enhances their bonding strength, with the Ar treated films exhibiting the highest bond strength and nitrogen the lowest. Bond strength was shown to correlate positively with total oxygen content, with C–O group concentration and with the polar component of surface energy. Bond strength correlated negatively with CO group concentration.

857. Zhanxun, C., C. Jie, and W. Zhizhong, “ESCA characterization of plasma-polymerized tetrafluoroethylene,” in Advances in Low-Temperature Plasma Chemistry, Technology, Applications, Boenig, H.V., ph.d, ed., 265-274, Technomic, 1988.

1283. Zheng, Z., X. Wang, M. Shi, and G. Zhou, “Surface modification of ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene fibers,” J. Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, 42, 463-472, (Feb 2004).

To prevent the loss of fiber strength, ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers were treated with an ultraviolet radiation technique combined with a corona-discharge treatment. The physical and chemical changes in the fiber surface were examined with scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared/attenuated total reflectance. The gel contents of the fibers were measured by a standard device. The mechanical properties of the treated fibers and the interfacial adhesion properties of UHMWPE-fiber-reinforced vinyl ester resin composites were investigated with tensile testing. After 20 min or so of ultraviolet radiation based on 6-kW corona treatment, the T-peel strength of the treated UHMWPE-fiber composite was one to two times greater than that of the as-received UHMWPE-fiber composite, whereas the tensile strength of the treated UHMWPE fibers was still up to 3.5 GPa. The integrated mechanical properties of the treated UHMWPE fibers were also optimum. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part B: Polym Phys 42: 463–472, 2004

1474. Zheng, Z., X. Wang, X. Huang, M. Shi, and G. Zhou, “Chemical modification combined with corona treatment of UHMWPE fibers and their adhesion to vinylester resin,” J. Adhesion Science and Technology, 20, 1047-1059, (2006).

The influence of corona treatment on the near-surface structures of treated ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers was studied first by atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM pictures showed that the pits on the corona-treated PE fiber surfaces had different change characteristics in depth compared with in length and breadth with variations of corona power. Then the UHMWPE fibers were subjected to chemical modification following the corona treatment, named the two-stage treatment. Surface morphologies and chemical properties of the treated fibers were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), FT-IR–ATR spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The results obtained suggested that some carbon–carbon double bonds had been introduced on the surfaces of the PE fibers after the two-stage treatment. These unsaturated groups could participate in free-radical curing of vinylester resin (VER), and this resulted in improvement of interfacial adhesion strength in the PE fiber/VER composites. In addition, the mechanical properties of the UHMWPE fibers reduced after corona treatment did not reduce further after subsequent chemical treatment with increase of corona power. In short, the two-stage treatment proved to be effective in improving the interfacial adhesion of the composites and maintaining the high mechanical properties of the PE fibers, as this treatment method did not destroy the bulk structure of the UHMWPE fibers.

1284. Zheng, Z., et al, “A study of the influence of controlled corona treatment on UHMWPE fibres in reinforced vinylester composites,” Polymer Intl., 52, 1833-1838, (Dec 2003).

In order to illuminate the mechanisms of corona discharge treatment on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibre, the effects of corona treatment power and time are discussed in detail. The surface-roughness and tensile-failure characteristics of the polyethylene fibre were determined by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The photos from the SEM showed that the size and number of the micro-pits on the fibre surface increase with increase of corona power. The oxygen-containing groups on the fibre surface could be detected by Fourier-transform infrared attenuated total reflectance and also increased gradually with increase of corona power. The T-peel strength of composites increased from the corona treatment, and then showed a maximum value at a corona treatment time about 0.1 s with increase of treatment time. However, the tensile strength of the fibre was reduced with increase of corona power and the failure mechanism obviously changed after the treatment. The ballistic impact energy absorption of UHMWPE fibre/vinylester composite was obtained after fragment simulating projectiles (FSP) impact tests. After 6-kW corona treatment for 0.075 s, the impact energy absorbed by the laminate reached a maximum value. Copyright © 2003 Society of Chemical Industry

1529. Zhi, F., Q. Yuchang, and W. Hui, “Surface treatment of polyethylene terephthalate film using atmospheric pressure glow discharge in air,” Plasma Science and Technology, 6, 2576-2580, (Dec 2004).

Non-thermal plasmas under atmospheric pressure are of great interest in polymer surface processing because of their convenience, effectiveness and low cost. In this paper, the treatment of Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film surface for improving hydrophilicity using the non-thermal plasma generated by atmospheric pressure glow discharge (APGD) in air is conducted. The discharge characteristics of APGD are shown by measurement of their electrical discharge parameters and observation of light-emission phenomena, and the surface properties of PET before and after the APGD treatment are studied using contact angle measurement, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEh4). It is found that the APGD is homogeneous and stable in the whole gas gap, which differs from the commonly filamentary dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). -4 short time (several seconds) APGD treatment can modify the surface characteristics of PET film markedly and uniformly. After 10 s APGD treatment, the surface oxygen content of PET surface increases to 39%, and the water contact angle decreases to 19°, respectively.

1464. Zhong, W., “Surface tension, wetting and wicking,” in Thermal and Moisture Transport in Fibrous Materials, Pan, N., and P. Gibson, eds., 136-155, Woodhead Publishing, Nov 2006.

1264. Zhu, B., H. Iwata, I. Hirata, and Y. Ikada, “Hydrophilic modification of a polyimide film surface,” J. Adhesion Science and Technology, 14, 351-361, (2000).

The surface of a polyimide [poly(biphenyl 3,3′,4,4′-dianhydride-p-phenylene diamine)] film was modified with an O2 glow plasma and subsequent treatment with polyethyleneimine (PEI) and poly(maleic anhydride-co-vinyl methyl ether) (PMAVM). The density of peroxide groups formed on the surface after O2 plasma exposure was determined with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and was found to level off to 1.2 nmol/cm2 within the plasma exposure time of 20-60 s. The peroxide groups formed were utilized to immobilize PEI covalently onto the plasma-treated polymer film. After that, PMAVM was immobilized on the surface through the formation of amide bonds between the amino groups of PEI and the anhydride groups of PMAVM. The water contact angle on the modified films showed that the hydrophilic durability of the PMAVM-PEI-modified polyimide film was superior to that of the polyimide film treated by O2 plasma alone.

400. Zisman, W.A., “Adhesion,” Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 55, 18-38, (1963).

607. Zisman, W.A., “Surface energetics of wetting, spreading, and adhesion,” J. Coatings Technology, 44, (1972).

Progress of research on wetting, spreading, and liquid-to-solid adhesion is reviewed with emphasis on advances since 1963. Carefully controlled experiments with pure materials, clean solids, special atmospheres, and thermodynamically acceptable physical conditions have resulted in new knowledge of surface science, polymer properties, and the role of interfering properties and chemicals. New uses and relationships have already been produced in many fields of technology and science. Recent advances shed much light on molecular conformational differences, polymer tacticity, and hydrogen bonding. Several current research problems are identified.

660. Zisman, W.A., “Constitutional effects on adhesion and cohesion,” in Adhesion and Cohesion, Weiss, P., ed., 176+, Elsevier, 1962.

The effect of varying the chemical constitution of a material on its ability to adhere may be determined to a good first approximation by the nature and packing density of the atoms or molecular radicals in the solid surface. This general conclusion was established by experiments on the wetting of liquids and solids, by the effect of the constitution of polymeric solids on friction, and by the overriding effect of monomolecular adsorbed films on adhesion. The reversible work of adhesion W sub A of a liquid to a low-energy solid can be calculated approximately from the contact angle and liquid surface tension. Both W sub A and the maximum capillary rise in pores and crevices are parabolic functions of the liquid surface tension. The resulting data are discussed in terms of surface constitutive effects, changes in W sub A and in the internal stress concentrations developed as the adhesives solidify.

1601. Zisman, W.A., “Relation of the equilibrium contact angle to liquid and solid constitution,” in Contact Angle, Wettability and Adhesion, F.M. Fowkes and W.A. Zisman, eds., 1-51, American Chemical Society, 1964.

A review of the author's investigations of the equilibrium contact angles of pure liquids on low- and high-energy solid surfaces, both bare and covered with a condensed monomolecular adsorbed film, includes the critical surface tension of wetting and the effect of homology on spreading by pure liquids, the causes of nonspreading on high-energy surfaces, and the existence and properties of autophobic liquids and oleophobic monolayers. Constitutive relationships are summarized in a table of critical surface tensions of wetting. The theory and application of the retraction method of preparing adsorbed monolayers from solution and the conditions for mixed films are presented. Studies of the wetting behavior of solutions of various surfactants and the resultant explanation of the function of a wetting agent are generalized to include nonaqueous systems. Following estimates of the reversible work of adhesion of liquids to solids, the part played by wetting in obtaining optimum adhesion by adhesives is outlined, and a fundamental explanation is given of constitutive effects in the development of strong adhesive joints. Future areas of research on wetting and adhesion are indicated.

2337. Zisman, W.A., “Surface properties of plastics,” Record of Chemical Progree, 26, 23+, (1965).

1401. Zito, W.F., “Electrostatic treatment of films: Watts the answer?,” in 1980 Paper Synthetics Conference Proceedings, 181, TAPPI Press, 1980.

608. Zorll, U., “Significance and problem of the critical surface tension,” Adhesion, 18, 262+, (1974).

1120. d'Agostino, R., P. Favia, C. Oehr, and M.R. Wertheimer, Plasma Processes and Polymers, Wiley-VCH, 2005.

1579. d'Agostino, R., P. Favia, C. Oehr, and M.R. Wertheimer, “Low-temperature plasma processing of materials: past, present, and future,” Plasma Processes and Polymers, 2, 7-15, (2005).

Plasma, considered as the fourth state of matter, is playing a key role as a modern discipline. Plasma processing is drawing attention from various technology sectors such as microelectronics, automotive, and surface modifications of polymers. Some examples of additional new applications include functional coatings for architectural glass, mercury-free lamps, plasma-treated packaging for food, beverage and pharmaceutical industries, as well as nanomaterials. With the emergence of all new technological applications from basic research in academic, industrial, or government laboratories, plasma is set to have a brilliant future.

1408. d'Agostino, R., et al, “Plasma treatment of PET for improving Al-adhesion,” in 41st Annual Technical Conference Proceedings, Society of Vacuum Coaters, 1998.

1055. da Silva, W., A. Entenberg, B. Kahn, T. Debies, and G.A. Takacs, “Adhesion of copper to teflon surfaces modified by vacuum UV photo-oxidation downstream from Ar microwave plasma,” in PMSE Reprints, American Chemical Society, Mar 2004.

74. de Gennes, P.-G., “Wetting: statics and dynamics,” Review of Modern Physics, 57(3), P1, 827-863, (1985).

The wetting of solids by liquids is connected to physical chemistry (wettability), to statistical physics (pinning of the contact line, wetting transitions, etc.), to long-range forces (van der Waals, double layers), and to fluid dynamics. The present review represents an attempt towards a unified picture with special emphasis on certain features of “dry spreading”: (a) the final state of a spreading droplet need not be a monomolecular film; (b) the spreading drop is surrounded by a precursor film, where most of the available free energy is spent; and (c) polymer melts may slip on the solid and belong to a separate dynamical class, conceptually related to the spreading of superfluids.

75. de Gennes, P.-G., “The dynamics of wetting,” in Fundamentals of Adhesion, Lee, L.-H., ed., 173-179, Plenum Press, Feb 1991.

1086. de Gennes, P.-G., F. Brochard-Wyart, and D. Quere, “Capillarity: Deformable interfaces,” in Capillarity and Wetting Phenomena: Drops, Bubbles, Pearls, Waves, 1-30, Springer-Verlag, Nov 2003.

Capillarity is the study of the interfaces between two immiscible liquids, or between a liquid and air. The interfaces are deformable: they are free to change their shape in order to minimize their surface energy. The field was created in the early part of the 19th century by Pierre Simon de Laplace (1749–1827) and Thomas Young (1773–1829). Henri Bouasse wrote a wonderful account of developments in capillarity in a book he published in 1924.1 This discipline enables us to understand the games water can play to break the monotony of a rainy day or the tricks it performs while washing dishes. On a more serious note, capillarity plays a major role in numerous scientific endeavors (soil science, climate, plant biology, surface physics, and more), as well as in the chemical industry (product formulation in pharmacology and domestics, the glass industry, automobile manufacturing, textile production, etc.).

1087. de Gennes, P.-G., F. Brochard-Wyart, and D. Quere, “Hysteresis and elasticity of triple lines,” in Capillarity and Wetting Phenomena: Drops, Bubbles, Pearls, Waves, 69-84, Springer-Verlag, Nov 2003.

When we place a liquid drop on a clean, planar, solid surface, we can observe a contact angle θ E , which is precisely the angle contained in Young’s formula. Quite often, though, the surface is marred by defects that are

  • either chemical (stains, blotches, blemishes)

  • or physical (surface irregularities).

1088. de Gennes, P.-G., F. Brochard-Wyart, and D. Quere, “Wetting and long-range forces,” in Capillarity and Wetting Phenomena: Drops, Bubbles, Pearls, Waves, 87-104, Springer-Verlag, Nov 2003.

856. de Mendez, M., J.C. Boeda, G. Legeay, J.C. Brosse, and P. Simon, “Low temperature plasma modification of polysiloxanes,” in Advances in Low-Temperature Plasma Chemistry, Technology, Applications, Boenig, H.V., ed., 229-242, Technomic, 1988.


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