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ACCU DYNE TEST ™ Bibliography

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2620. Sabreen, S.R., “Best process practices for polyamide (nylon) adhesion bonding,”, Nov 2015.

2642. Smith, R.E., “Cleaning silicone treater sleeves,”, Oct 2015.

2641. Smith, R.E., “Low dyne level readings on epoxy coated steel,”, Oct 2015.

2634. Katz, S., “With film substrates becoming more popular, corona treatment is increasingly more important,” Label & Narrow Web, 20, 70-72, (Oct 2015).

2633. Mills, P., and A. Stecher, “Overcoming adhesion failures of UV coatings with atmospheric plasma treatment,” Coatings World, 20, 68-71, (Oct 2015).

3024. Breedveld, V., and D.W. Hess, “Modification of paper/cellulose surfaces to control liquid wetting and adhesion,” in Advances in Contact Angle, Wettability and Adhesion (Vol. 2), K.L. Mittal, ed., 365-377, Scrivener, Sep 2015.

Cellulose is a biodegradable, renewable, flexible, inexpensive biopolymer that is abundant in nature. However, due to its hydrophilicity, applications of cellulose (paper) in the handling of liquids are severely limited. Appropriate plasma-or glow discharge-assisted processing sequences can be used to modify the surface of cellulose/paper so that the interaction of liquids with these surfaces can be altered. In particular, nanostructures associated with crystalline regions of cellulose fibers can be uncovered by plasma-enhanced etching; subsequent plasma-enhanced fluorocarbon film deposition (~ 100 nm) converts the surface into a superhydrophobic (static water contact angle> 150o; receding contact angle< 8o) state. Similar results can be obtained by depositing diamond-like carbon films on the plasmaetched surface, in spite of the inherently hydrophilic nature of diamond-like carbon itself. In addition, droplet adhesion and mobility can be controlled; depending on the etch cycle parameters, the paper surface can be rendered ‘roll-off’or ‘sticky’superhydrophobic. Use of a commercial printer to generate hydrophobic ink patterns on superhydrophobic paper surfaces allows controlled movement, transfer and storage of water or other aqueous liquids on the paper surface. These basic functionalities can be combined to design simple two-dimensional lab-on-paper (LOP) devices. Finally, by controlling both the cellulose fiber size and spacing, and depositing a fluorocarbon film, paper surfaces can be rendered superomniphobic, repelling both polar and apolar liquids.

2919. Jin, M., F. Thomsen, T. Skrivanek, and T. Willers, “Why test inks cannot tell the whole truth about surface free energy of solids,” in Advances in Contact Angle, Wettability and Adhesion (Vol. 2), K.L. Mittal, ed., 419-438, Wiley, Sep 2015.

2619. Gilbertson, T.J., “Finicky films: The signature relationship to corona treaters,” Flexo, 40, 48-51, (Sep 2015).

2618. Bishop, C.A., “Vacuum verbiage: How do nucleation, surface wetting affect thin-film crystal characteristics?,” Converting Quarterly, 5, 18-19, (Aug 2015).

2961. Shaw, D.R., P.M. Gyuk, A.T. West, M. Momoh, and E. Wagenaars, “Surface modification of polymer films using an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet,” Presented at 22nd International Symposium on Plasma Chemistry, Jul 2015.

2616. Sabreen, S.R., “Industrial inkjet printing onto wearables,” Plastics Decorating, 16-20, (Jul 2015).

2617. Nielsen, R., “What is the future of adhesion for water-based inks and adhesives on raw BOPP film?,” Converting Quarterly, 5, 78-81, (May 2015).

2607. no author cited, “Why all films do not treat the same - The signature relationship between your film & corona treaters,” Enercon Industries Corp., Apr 2015.

2605. Kaverman, J., “TPE, TPO, TPU present challenges for pad printing,”, Feb 2015.

2610. Sabreen, S.R., “Best practices for bonding semi-crystalline thermoplastics,” Plastics Decorating, 27-29, (Jan 2015).

2608. Wolf, R.A., “Polyolefin-film surface preparation leveraging atmospheric plasma,” Converting Quarterly, 5, 67-71, (Jan 2015).

2603. Mount, E.M. III, “Substrate secrets: Treatment decay in metallized films - take two,”, Jan 2015.

2724. Alm, H.K., G. Strom, J. Schoelkopf, and P. Gane, “Ink-lift-off during offset printing: a novel mechanism behind ink-paper coating adhesion failure,” J. Adhesion Science and Technology, 29, 370-391, (2015).

This paper reports on a special pilot coating and industrial printing trial designed to gain fundamental knowledge on ink adhesion failure on coated papers. We found that ink adhesion failure resulted in white spots without ink on the paper, referred to as uncovered areas and these spots gave print mottle problems. The white spots were due to two fundamentally different types of ink adhesion failure. One is the well-known ink rejection, which simply means that ink is not transferred to the surface. The other is a new type of ink adhesion failure, confirming a previous hypothesis suggested from laboratory observations. We refer to this as ink-lift-off adhesion failure, meaning that ink initially deposited on the paper surface becomes lifted off from the surface in a subsequent print unit. Adhesion failure by this mechanism was seen to occur more frequently than failure due to the well-known ink rejection.

2723. Gotoh, K., Y. Nagai, Y. Yonehara, and Y. Kobayashi, “Surface hydrophilization of two polyester films by atmospheric-pressure plasma and ultraviolet excimer light exposures,” J. Adhesion Science and Technology, 29, 473-486, (2015).

Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) films were treated with an atmospheric-pressure plasma (APP) jet and a 172-nm ultraviolet (UV) excimer light in air. The advancing and receding water contact angles on both films decreased after the treatments, especially after APP treatment. After the treatments, the hydrophobic recovery was observed and almost diminished within a week. The dispersive component of the surface free energy of the two polyester films did not change due to the APP and UV exposure, whereas the acid–base component drastically increased after the treatments. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results showed that the polyester film surfaces were oxidized by the treatments. From the AFM images, the topographical change on the film surfaces due to the treatments was clearly observed. It was found that the APP treatment of the PET film prevented the deposition of particulate soils in air due to the decrease in the contact area between the film and the soil particle. Furthermore, the soil release in the aqueous solutions was promoted as a result of the hydrophilization of the polyester films due to the APP treatment.

2722. Geng, X., Q. Qiang, J. Zhao, J. Yang, and Z. Wang, “The effect of TiO2 morphology on the surface modification of poly(ethylene terephthalate) for electroless plating,” J. Adhesion Science and Technology, 29, 705-715, (2015).

In this study, a surface modification of the poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film using TiO2 photocatalytic treatment was investigated. In order to enhance the adhesion strength between the PET film and the electroless copper film, the effects of TiO2 crystal forms, TiO2 particle sizes, and TiO2 content, as well as treatment condition, upon the surface contact angle, surface characterization, and adhesion strength were investigated. Anatase TiO2 with a particle size of 5 nm had a high catalytic activity and dispersibility in aqueous solution. After the optimal photocatalytic treatment, the surface contact angle of the PET film decreased from 84.4° to 19.8°, and the surface roughness of the PET film increased from 36 to 117 nm. The adhesion strength between the PET film and the electroless copper film reached 0.89 KN m−1. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses indicated the carbonyl group was formed on the PET surface after photocatalytic treatment, and the surface hydrophilicity was improved. Consequently, TiO2 photocatalytic treatment is an environmentally friendly and effective method for the surface modification of the PET film.

2721. Gilpin, A.D., B.R. Oakley, and R.G. Dillingham, “Water contact angle as a quantitative measure of total polyethylene surface energy,” J. Adhesion Science and Technology, 29, 890-895, (2015).

A wide variety of plasma treatments was performed on polyethylene surfaces, resulting in a wide range of total surface energies. The linear correlation of polar component of the surface energy of the solid with cos θ was discussed in light of the Young–Dupré equation. Hundred percent of the surface energy variation was accounted for by the polar component of surface energy; the dispersive component was not affected by surface treatment. These data show that for this polymer the contact angle of a single polar liquid can be used as a robust quantitative indicator of treatment level, and because of its excellent linear correlation with total surface energy for this system, can be used as a quantitative measure of total surface energy.

2720. Manko, D., A. Zdziennicka, K. Szymczyk, and B. Janczuk, “Wettability of polytetrafluoroethylene and polymethyl methacrylate by aqueous solutions of TX-100 and TX-165 mixture with propanol,” J. Adhesion Science and Technology, 29, 1081-1095, (2015).

The measurements of the contact angle of the aqueous solutions of TX-100 and TX-165 mixture with propanol on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) were carried out. On the basis of the obtained results, the dependence between the cosine of contact angle and surface tension as well as between the adhesion and surface tension of the solutions in the light of the work of adhesion of the solutions to the PTFE and PMMA surface was discussed. The dependence between the adhesion and surface tension for PMMA was correlated to the surface concentration of propanol as well as TX-100 and TX-165 mixture concentration determined from the Frumkin equation at the PMMA-air, PMMA-solution and solution–air interfaces. For this purpose, the surface tension of PMMA covered by a surface active agent film was determined using the Neumann et al. equation and next the PMMA–solution interface tension was evaluated from the Young equation. The values of the surface tension of PMMA covered by propanol and surfactants mixture layer were applied to describe the changes of the adhesion work of solutions to PMMA surface as a function of propanol and surfactants mixture concentration. The adhesion work of the aqueous solutions of TX-100 and TX-165 mixture with propanol to the PTFE and PMMA surfaces was discussed in the light of the adhesion work of particular components of the solutions. On the basis of the results obtained from the contact angle measurements, the standard Gibbs free energy of adsorption of particular components of solution was also considered.

2719. Strobel, M., S.M. Kirk, L. Heinzen, E. Mischke, C.S. Lyons, and J. Endle, “Contact angle measurements on oxidized polymer surfaces containing water-soluble species,” J. Adhesion Science and Technology, 29, 1483-1507, (2015).

Advancing and receding contact angle measurements on polymer surfaces can be performed using a number of different methods. Ballistic deposition is a new method for both rapidly and accurately measuring the receding contact angle of water. In the ballistic deposition method, a pulsed stream of 0.15-μL water droplets is impinged upon a surface. The water spreads across the surface and then coalesces into a single 1.8-μL drop. High-speed video imaging shows that, on most surfaces, the water retracts from previously wetted material, thereby forming receding contact angles that agree with the receding angles measured by the Wilhelmy plate technique. The ballistic deposition method measures the receding angle within one second after the water first contacts the surface. This rapid measurement enables the investigation of polymer surface properties that are not easily probed by other wettability measurement methods. For example, meaningful contact angles of water can be obtained on the water-soluble low-molecular-weight oxidized materials (LMWOM) formed by the corona and flame treatment of polypropylene (PP) films. Use of the ballistic deposition method allows for a characterization of the wetting properties and an estimation of the surface energy components of LMWOM itself. Both corona- and flame-generated LMWOM have significant contact angle hysteresis, almost all of which is accounted for by the non-dispersive (polar) component of the surface rather than by the dispersive component. Surface heterogeneity is thus associated primarily with the oxidized functionalities added to the PP by the corona and flame treatments.

2718. Schafer, J., T. Hofmann, J. Holtmannspotter, M. Frauenhofer, J. von Czarnecki, and H.-J. Gudladt, “Atmospheric-pressure plasma treatment of polyamide 6 composites for bonding with polyurethane,” J. Adhesion Science and Technology, 29, 1807-1819, (2015).

An atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ)-based surface treatment process was investigated for the structural (τB > 15 MPa) adhesive bonding of polyamide 6 (PA6) composites. The treated surfaces were examined by contact angle measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Additionally, the shear strengths of single lap specimens were determined as a function of different plasma intensities and polyurethane adhesives. Our results show that APPJ leads to an increase of the surface free energy, oxygen concentration, and number of functional groups. Furthermore, the topography of the surface was significantly modified by exposure to APPJ. AFM measurements show that special attention has to be paid to the intensity of the plasma treatment to avoid melting and flattening of the PA6 surface on the nanometer scale. With optimized multiple APPJ treatments, lap shear strength of 20 MPa was achieved for the first time for this material system, allowing the material system to be employed in future automobile applications.

2695. no author cited, “ASTM D7541: Standard practice for estimating critical surface tensions,” ASTM, 2015.

2614. Stecher, A., and P. Mills, “Improving the adhesion of UV-curable coatings to plastics,” Plastics Decorating, 6-11, (Jul 2015).

2983. Van Deynse, A., P. Cools, C. Leys, R. Morent, and N. De Geyter, “Influence of ambient conditions on the aging behavior of plasma-treated polyethylene surfaces,” Surface and Coatings Technology, 258, 359-367, (Nov 2014).

Plasma treatment is often used to modify the surface properties of polymer films, since it offers numerous advantages over the conventional surface modification techniques. However, plasma-treated polymer films have a tendency to revert back to the untreated state (aging process). Therefore, the stability of plasma-induced changes on polymer surfaces over a desired period of time is a very important issue. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of storage conditions (relative humidity and temperature) on the aging behavior in air of plasma-treated low density polyethylene (LDPE) films. Plasma treatment is performed using a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) operating in different argon/water vapor mixtures at medium pressure (5.0 kPa). Results show that the aging process can be suppressed by storing the plasma-modified LDPE films at low temperature and by decreasing the relative humidity of the surrounding air. Adding water vapor in the plasma discharge has a positive influence on the aging process: lower plateau WCA values are found for plasmas containing a higher water vapor concentration and it takes a longer time to reach these plateau values. In this paper, it is also shown that storage first at a lower temperature and then aging at a higher temperature is not able to slow down the aging effect.

2959. Ding, L., L. Wang, L. Shao, J. Cao, and Y. Bai, “The water-dependent decay mechanism of biaxially-oriented corona-treated polyethylene terephthalate films,” RSC Advances, 4, 54805-54809, (Oct 2014).

In moist environments biaxially-oriented corona-treated polyethylene terephthalate (BOPET) film undergoes a decay in surface energy with time. This decay is a significant and well-known problem and it considerably restricts the industrial application of BOPET film. In the present study the decay effect and the dynamics of corona-treated BOPET film in an aqueous environment have been studied using water contact angle and variable angle X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. In addition the surface decay mechanism of the corona-treated BOPET film in aqueous environments was analyzed and a molecular moving model for the decay mechanism is proposed.

2613. Hyllberg, B., “Corona treating roll covering technology and innovation: Part 2,” Converting Quarterly, 4, 66-69, (Oct 2014).

2609. no author cited, “Basic test methods for in-mold labels and label materials: Surface tension of plastic films,” Plastics Decorating, 15, (Oct 2014).

2968. Gilliam, M., “Polymer surface treatment and coating technologies,” in Handbook of Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, A.Y.C. Nee, ed., 99-124, Springer, Sep 2014.

An overview of surface modification and coating techniques for plastics is presented for changing the surface properties to meet the performance requirements in a variety of applications. Surface modification and coatings are utilized for purposes of adhesion, wettability, biocompatibility, scratch and abrasion resistance, chemical resistance, barrier properties, and more. Methods for modification include physical processes, such as surface roughening and abrading; liquid chemical processes, such as acid etching; and reactive gas chemical processes. The reactive gas chemical processes covered include corona, flame, and low-temperature plasma. Surface degradation from reactive gas exposure is presented with respect to the sources, chemical mechanisms, and methods for characterization. Coatings for plastics, including paints, functional coatings, and metallization, are summarized.

2601. Mount, E.M. III, “Substrate secrets: Extrusion-coating of woven HDPE cloth,”, Sep 2014.

2611. Raghavan, V., “Acrylics on plastics: Basics of wetting and adhesion,”, Aug 2014.

2612. Hyllberg, B., “Corona-treating roll covering technology and innovation, Part 1,” Converting Quarterly, 4, 56-60, (Jul 2014).

2600. Mount, E.M. III, “Substrate secrets: How to recognize a corona-treated or plain PET film surface after metallization,”, Jul 2014.

2599. Bishop, C.A., “Coating adhesion - To stick or not to stick? That is the question.,”, Jul 2014.

2598. Mount, E.M. III, “Help for lamination bonding,”, Jul 2014.

2597. Bishop, C.A., “Barrier polymers: Using Hansen Solubility Parameters fo rank barrier polymers,”, Jul 2014.

2586. Stobbe, B.D., “Question and Answer: Corona discharge surface treatment,” Plastics Decorating, 29, (Jul 2014).

3019. no author cited, “Why test inks cannot tell the full truth about surface free energy,” Kruss Application Report AR272, Jun 2014.


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