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ACCU DYNE TEST ™ Bibliography

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2728. Cohen, E.D., “Solution properties that need to be measured, part 3,”, May 2018.

2999. Burdzik, A., M. Stahler, M. Carmo, and D. Stolten, “Impact of reference values used for surface free energy determinatipn: An uncertainty analysis,” Intl. J. Adhesion and Adhesives, 82, 1-7, (Apr 2018).

Polar and dispersion surface free energy (SFE) can be determined with the Owens-Wendt method. Thereby, contact angles (CAs) of at least two liquids with known surface tension (ST) components are measured. The ST components can either be determined through experiment or drawn from literature. However, it is important to know how big the difference is between SFE component values that have been calculated with experimentally-determined ST values or values derived from literature. In this study, STs of different test liquids were analyzed by Pendant Drop method and the components by CA measurement on a non-polar surface. CAs on different polymer surfaces were measured to calculate SFE components with the Owens-Wendt method. The calculations conducted were either based on experimentally-determined ST parts or different sets of values found in the literature. The findings of the survey show that, depending on the set of literature values used, the SFE results deviate significantly from the values obtained from experiment. Expressing this deviation in figures, in extreme cases the polar part differs for some polymers by -100% to +100%, with the dispersion component spanning -50% to +43%. In comparison, the expected relative uncertainties exhibited by the experimentally-determined ST values are about 15% for the polar and approximately 5% for the dispersion SFE part. Hence, the results show that the SFE uncertainty can be reduced significantly by means of analyzing the ST parts experimentally.

2731. Sabreen, S.R., “Plasma surface pretreatments of polymers for improved adhesion bonding,” Plastics Decorating, 44-49, (Apr 2018).

2730. Cohen, E.D., “Substrate properties required for quality web-coated products,” Converting Quarterly, 8, 58-61, (Apr 2018).

2729. Cohen, E.D., “Coating concepts: What solution properties need to be controlled for effective web coating?,” Converting Quarterly, 8, 18-19, (Apr 2018).

1984. Richards, S., “The effects of surface treatment on heat seal and hot tack,” Presented at TAPPI International Flexible Packaging & Extrusion Division Conference, Apr 2018.

2960. Lindner, M., N. Rodler, M. Jesdinszki, M. Schmid, and S. Sangerlaub, “Surface energy of corona treated PP, PE and PET films, its alteration as function of storage time and the effect of various corona dosages on their bond strength after lamination,” J. Applied Polymer Science, 135, 1-9, (Mar 2018).

The aim of this study was to analyze how corona dosages above recommended levels affect film surface energy and hydrophobic recovery of such treated film surfaces as well as laminate bond strength of laminates made of these films. The adhesive for lamination was a polyurethane-adhesive with a dry film thickness of ∼5 µm. Polar and dispersive parts of the surface energy were measured frequently according to DIN 55660-2 (Owens–Wendt–Rabel-and-Kaelble method) for up to 140 days after corona treatment. The corona dosage had a value of up to 280 W min/m2. Laminate bond strength was measured according to DIN 55543-5. The effect of corona treatment was highest for low-density polyethylene (PE-LD) films, mean for biaxial-oriented polypropylene (PP-BO) films, and lowest for biaxial-oriented poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET-BO) films. With increasing storage time, surface energy decreased, as expected. The higher the effect of corona treatment, the faster the polar part of surface energy decreased. At PE-LD, laminate bond strength increased with a higher corona dosage from 0.05 to 8.87 mN/15 mm, whereas at PET-BO and PP-BO laminate bond strength was so high that samples teared before delamination during bond strength testing. By our results is shown that corona dosages above recommended levels resulted in higher laminate bond strength. Only at PP-BO a reduction of laminate bond strength due to “overtreatment” was be observed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2018, 135, 45842.

2738. no author cited, “Case study: How rolls can help save energy in converting,” Flexible Packaging, 21, 22-23, (Mar 2018).

979. Terpilowski, K., D. Rymuszka, O. Goncharuk, and L. Yakovenko, “Equilibrium contact angle and determination of apparent surface free energy using hysteresis approach on rough surfaces,” in Advances in Contact Angle, Wettability and Adhesion (Vol. 3), K.L. Mittal, ed., 331-347, Scrivener, Feb 2018.

For determination of wettability of rough surfaces using the contact angle hysteresis approach and equilibrium contact angles, some new surfaces with controlled roughness were prepared. The influence of the binder nature and size of primary particles of silica powders on surface roughness and wettability of the newlydeveloped films was investigated using optical microscopy, profilometry, SEM and measurement of contact angles of water. Using the silicate binder and silica powders with primary particles of 9 nm, 40 nm and 4 μm, surface hierarchical structures were obtained. The maximal value of the roughness parameter Rq= 366.3 nm was obtained for the sample with silica microparticles of 4 μm. Wettability of the synthesized films was determined mostly by the binder crystals formed on the surface and their ability to interact with hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS). It is well characterised by equilibrium contact angles.

957. Etzler, F.M., “Determination of the surface free energy of solid surfaces: Statistical considerations,” in Advances in Contact Angle, Wettability and Adhesion, Vol. 3, K.L. Mittal, ed., 299-329, Scrivener, Feb 2018.

619. Schmitt, M., M. Schmitt, M. Schmitt, and F. Heib, “A more appropriate procedure to measure and analyse contact angles/drop shape behaviours,” in Advances in Contact Angle, Wettability and Adhesion (Vol. 3), K.L. Mittal, ed., 1-57, Scrivener, Feb 2018.

Surface science, which comprises the preparation, development and analysis of surfaces, is of utmost importance in both fundamental and applied sciences as well as in engineering and industrial research. During our research in the field of coatings/surfaces and coating materials, the analyses of wetting of coating materials and the coatings themselves led us to the field of dynamically performed drop shape analysis. We focussed our research efforts on the main problem of the surface science community, which is to determine the correct and valid definition and measurement of contact angles. So we developed the high-precision drop shape analysis (HPDSA) and three statistical contact angle determination procedures. HPDSA involves complex transformation of images from dynamic sessile drop experiments to x-y-coordinates and opens up the possibility of a physically meaningful calculation of curvature radii. This calculation of radii is the first step to an “assumption-free” link to the Laplace equation, which can deepen the understanding of the interface between the liquid and the vapour in relation to different properties and conditions (temperature, experimental technique, surface, etc.). The additional benefit of a tangent-free calculation of contact angles is presented in our 2014 and 2016 published papers. To fulfil the dire need for a reproducible contact angle determination/definition, we developed three procedures, namely, overall, global, and individual statistical analyses, which are based on, but not restricted to, HPDSA . . .

824. Ismail, M.F., A. Baldygin, T. Willers, and P.R. Waghmare, “Optical contact angle measurement considering spreading, evaporation and reactive substrate,” in Advances in Contact Angle, Wettability and Adhesion (Vol. 3), K.L. Mittal, ed., 59-79, Scrivener, Feb 2018.

Recent advances in surface science have led to a broad interest in wetting and/or spreading characterization of solid surfaces. Wettability of a solid surface can be defined as the tendency of a liquid to spread over the surface which is measured in terms of an angle, ie, contact angle between the tangent drawn at the triple point between the two phases (liquid and vapor) and the substrate surface. Reproducible and accurate measurements of the contact angle from the experiments are crucial in order to analyze the spreading behavior of a substrate. Spreading is greatly affected by different factors including liquid properties, substrate properties, and system/operating conditions. Here, different types of spreading phenomena in terms of drop evaporation on reactive/non-reactive surfaces and correct measures to obtain accurate contact angles in such scenarios are presented.

2986. Popelka, A., I. Novak, M. Al-Maadeed, M. Ouederni, and I. Krupa, “Effect of corona treatment on adhesion enhancement of LLDPE,” Surface and Coatings Technology, 335, 118-125, (Feb 2018).

Polymers/metal laminates are often used to improve physical and mechanical properties, especially those required in building applications. A flat aluminum composite panel (ACP) consisted mainly of two thin metal sheets usually made of aluminum (Al) and a non-metal core, such as polyethylene (PE). The lack of adhesion associated with the low wettability of PE is a serious problem. An eco-friendly, dry, non-destructive corona treatment technique can be applied to solve this problem. In this work, the use of a corona treatment to enhance the adhesion properties of linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) was studied. The changes in surface and adhesion properties were thoroughly analyzed using various analytical techniques and methods to obtain the optimal parameters for corona discharge using contact angle measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM force adhesion measurements were used to analyze the effect of the corona treatment on the adhesion enhancement of LLDPE, and the peel tests confirmed a significant increase in peel resistance in the LLDPE/Al laminate. A synergy effect from using the corona treatment in combination with an ethylene acrylic acid dispersion primer was observed.

2922. Mancinelli, S., “Flame treatment technology and its applications,” J. Applied Packaging Research, 10, (2018).

This paper, as the title underlines, will be focused on flame treatment technology applications, mainly on BOPP substrates.

After an introduction regarding flame chemistry and BOPP surface activation mechanisms, this paper will be focused on unique flame treatment oxidation performances, in comparison with other treatment methods actually used in the market.

Focus will then be moved to the characteristics and advantages of using flame treatment for film surface treatment. In particular, a comparison will be run with other surface treatment technologies (corona surface treatment and atmospheric plasma treatment) in terms of:

  • q surface energy after treatment;
  • surface oxidation mechanisms and chemical species involved;
  • quantity of oxygen on treated surface (oxidation level);
  • quality of oxygen on treated surface;
  • adhesion;
  • printability/print quality.

Typical and new applications of flame treatment will be presented, underlining benefits coming from flame usage for pretreating different types of skins. Finally, the paper will try to make rid of prejudices and misinformation concerning flame treatment process applications, especially to certain kind of webs and substrates.

2798. Hu, W., Y. Bai, C. Zhang, N. Li, and B. Cheng, “Coating based on the modified chlorinated polypropylene emulsion for promoting printability of biaxially oriented polypropylene film,” J. Adhesion Science and Technology, 32, 50-67, (2018).

In this paper, a polymeric coating based on the modified chlorinated polypropylene (CPP) emulsion was synthesized, methyl methacrylate (MMA), butyl acrylate (BA) and acrylic acid (AA) were grafted onto CPP backbone and phase inversion was conducted to obtain waterborne emulsion. Results showed that the concentration of initiator (BPO) had the greatest effect on graft copolymerization. The concentration of emulsifier and temperature influenced the results of phase inversion. Besides, the thermal performances of modified CPP were better than untreated one. In addition, the coating obtained in optimum condition had excellent adhesion to BOPP film, and apparently improved the printing quality of the film. The printability promotion should be attributed to the different movement trend of coating’s polar and un-polar chains during the baking step, as well as the subsequent formations of new coating/substrate and coating/ink interface layer.

2702. Abbott, S., “What is the real science behind PSAs and release coatings?,” Converting Quarterly, 7, 12-13, (Nov 2017).

2701. Smith, P., and N. Strauss, “Best practices for painting plastics,” Plastics Decorating, 50-55, (Nov 2017).

2832. Kiel, A., “Corona treatment systems - overcoming the effects of heat and humidity,”, Jul 2017.

2700. French, J., P. Nugent, F. Laxamana, and A. Adarlo, “Ozone adhesion process for insulating container manufacture,” U.S. Patent 9694521, Jul 2017.

2699. Kumar, S., “Liquid transfer in printing processes,” Converting Quarterly, 7, 74-80, (Jul 2017).

2698. Dillingham, G., “Film surface properties: Techniques for measurement and control of treatment level,” Converting Quarterly, 7, 58-64, (Jul 2017).

2697. Abbott, S., “Adhesion Apps: How do we achieve strong adhesion with polymers that have to be weak?,” Converting Quarterly, 7, 14-15, (Jul 2017).

2696. Sabreen, S.R., “Surface pretreatments and custom inks advance inkjet printing of plastics and films,” Plastics Decorating, 32-37, (Jul 2017).

2692. Smith, R.E., “Should surface tension test fluids be stored at reduced temperature to achieve maximum shelf life?,”, Jun 2017.

2691. Smith, R.E., “The effects of freezing dyne solutions,”, Jun 2017.

923. Wolf, R.A., “Pouch material surface treatment,” Presented at TAPPI Stand-up Pouch Making Workshop, Jun 2017.

2858. Zdziennicka, A., K. Szymczyk, J. Krawczyk, and B. Janczuk, “Some remarks on the solid surface tension determination from contact angle measurements,” Applied Surface Science, 405, 88-101, (May 2017).

2689. Abbott, S., “Adhesion Apps: How does entanglement result in strong adhesion?,” Converting Quarterly, 7, 14-15, (May 2017).

2688. Mount, E.M. III, “Substrate secrets: How can we optimize various substrate surfaces for proper adhesion?,” Converting Quarterly, 7, 16-17, (May 2017).

2916. Siedelmann, L.J.W., J.W. Bradley, M. Ratova, J. Hewitt, J. Moffat, and B. Kelly, “Reel-to-reel atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma treatment of polypropylene films,” Applied Sciences, 7, 337+, (Mar 2017).

Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment of the surface of a polypropylene film can significantly increase its surface energy and, thereby improve the printability of the film. A laboratory-scale dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) system has therefore been developed, which simulates the electrode configuration and reel-to-reel web transport mechanism used in a typical industrial-scale system. By treating the polypropylene in a nitrogen discharge, we have shown that the water contact angle could be reduced by as much as 40° compared to the untreated film, corresponding to an increase in surface energy of 14 mNm−1. Ink pull-off tests showed that the DBD plasma treatment resulted in excellent adhesion of solvent-based inks to the polypropylene film.

2685. Smith, R.E., “Determining the accuracy of dyne solutions,”, Mar 2017.

2684. Smith, R.E., “Shelf life of surface tension test fluids,”, Mar 2017.

2982. Popelka, A., I. Krupa, I. Novak, M. Al-Maadeed, and M. Ouederni, “Improvement of aluminum/polyethylene adhesion through corona discharge,” J. Physics D: Applied Physics, 50, (Jan 2017).

Polyethylene (PE) is often used in several industrial applications including the building, packaging and transport industries. Aluminum (Al) is widely used in different applications in the automotive, railway, aeronautic, and naval industries because of its excellent mechanical and chemical properties. Laminates prepared from Al and PE lead to an enhancement in physical and mechanical properties. These materials play a main role in the packaging and building sectors, such as in TetraPak containers and aluminum composite panels. The main problem observed is associated with the adhesion between polymers and metals. This research focused on investigating the enhancement in the adhesion of the PE/Al laminate using the corona discharge. The corona treatment of the surfaces led to a significant increase in the adhesion of the PE/Al laminate as a result of improved surface properties confirmed by peel test measurements. Moreover, the positive effect of the corona treatment in combination with a primer on the improvement of adhesion characteristics was observed too. Different analytical techniques were employed to characterize the effect of the corona treatment on the improvement in adhesion of PE/Al. A significant increase in wettability was confirmed by the measurement of contact angles. Changes in the surface morphology of the PE and Al surface, after the corona treatments at different operating conditions, were observed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to analyze changes in chemical composition after the corona discharge effect on PE and Al surfaces.

2676. Blake, T.D., “An introduction to wetting and its relevance to coating,” Converting Quarterly, 7, (Jan 2017).

2669. Reisig, S., “Comparative study between pulsed-DC and RF plasma pre-treatment of polymer web,”, Jan 2017.

402. no author cited, “ASTM D2578-17: Standard test method for wetting tension of polyethylene and polypropylene films,” ASTM, 2017.

2831. Brehmer, F., “Gentle plasma - surface treatment for sensitive materials,”, Dec 2016.

2683. Smith, R.E., “Subsequent processing of dyne tested parts,”, Nov 2016.

2672. Couchie, M., “Tips for selecting coating chemistries for hard-to-coat plastics,” Plastics Engineering, 72, 40-43, (Nov 2016).

2671. Fichtner, J, T. Beck, and S. Gunther, “Surface modification of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and oxide-coated PET for adhesion improvement,” Converting Quarterly, 6, 48-54, (Nov 2016).


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