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1270. Lukask, J., T. Fenclova, V. Tyrackkova, and J. Vacik, “The surface treatment of polypropylene molds and its effect on the quality of cast contact lenses,” J. Applied Biomaterials, 3, 275-279, (1992).

An investigation of the surface by XPS photoelectron spectroscopy has shown that the process of production of cast contact lenses based on poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylateco-diethyleneglycol methacrylate) is accompanied by mass transfer at the lens-mold boundary. This phenomenon, which impairs the compatibility of the lens during its application, can be considerably suppressed by employing a suitable surface modification of polypropylene molds. The surface treatment consisting in the oxidation of the mold surface by an AC corona discharge in the oxygen atmosphere increased hydrophilicity of the material, thus facilitating separation of the lens from the mold. The results of the XPS study were also confirmed microscopically by employing the SEM method. © 1992 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/jab.770030406

622. Lukowsky, D., and G. Hora, “Pretreatments of wood to enhance the performance of outdoor coatings,” in Quo Vadis - Coatings?: XXVI FATIPEC Congress, Adler, H.-J.P., and K. Potje-Kamloth, eds., 77-86, Wiley-VCH, Oct 2002.

The wet adhesion of water borne acrylic dispersions is a crucial factor on the performance of outdoor coatings on wood. Pine sapwood was treated with several methods for surface activation to increase the wet adhesion of water borne acrylic dispersions. The wet adhesion was measured by pull-off tests as well as with a modified cross-cut test. Atmospheric plasma, corona treatment and fluorination increased the wet adhesion of the coating which is attributed to the increasing polar portion of the surface free energy. Other ways of improving the wet adhesion are the addition of promotors, the use of primers and organisational improvements.

2309. Lundell, E.O., and W.H. Smarook, “Method of selectively treating a plastic surface to prevent blocking,” U.S. Patent 4216254, Aug 1980.

226. Lundqvist, A., L. Odberg, and J.C. Berg, “Surface characterization of non-chlorine bleached pulp fibers and calcium carbonate coatings using inverse gas chromatography,” TAPPI J., 78, 139-142, (May 1995).

677. Luner, P.E., and E. Oh, “Surface free energies of cellulose ether films,” in Contact Angle, Wettability and Adhesion, Vol. 2, K.L. Mittal, ed., 299-315, VSP, Sep 2002.

The objective of this study was to determine the surface free energy components of celнlulose ethers films. The surface free energy parameters were calculated from the contact angles of sessile drops of apolar and polar liquids on cellulose ether films cast on glass slides using the Lifshitz-van der Waals/acid-base (LW/AB) approach according to the method of van Oss, Chaudhury and Good (Chem. Rev. 88, 927-941, 1988). The cellulose ethers studied were hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), methylcellulose (MC), hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) and hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) and ethylcellulose (EC). The total surface free energy of these cellulose ethers ranged from 29-50 mJ/m2. The overall trend in the values of the thermodynamic terms derived from the surface free energy parameters as indicators of hydrophilicity was in good agreement with the relaнtive bulk solubility and hydration behavior of the polymers. Calculation of the work of adhesion with substrates of varying surface free energy parameters indicated that acid-base interactions made a major contribution to the total work of adhesion between cellulose ethers and bipolar surfaces. Changes in surface free energy as a result of the presence of plasticizer or change in solvent compoнsition for EC films were resolvable with the LW/AB approach. Although no direct correlation could be established between the surface free energy parameters and the type of substitution on the celluнlose backbone for the cellulose ethers, the values of the terms derived from the LW/AB approach were consistent with those of cellulose. The LW/AB approach provides a reasonably consistent method for estimating the surface properties of cellulose ethers and the resulting surface free energy parameters are shown to relate to the interfacial properties of the polymers.

2023. Luner, P.E., and E. Oh, “Characterization of the surface free energy of cellulose ether films,” Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 181, 31-48, (Jun 2001).

The objective of this study was to determine the surface free energy components of aqueous-based cellulose ether films and compare these values with those of other cellulose polymers. The surface free energy parameters were calculated from the contact angles of sessile drops of apolar and polar liquids on cellulose ether films cast on glass slides using the Lifshitz–van der Waals/acid–base (LW/AB) approach according to the method of van Oss, Chaudhury and Good. The cellulose ethers studied were hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), methylcellulose (MC), hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) and hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC). The total surface free energy of these cellulose ethers ranged from 42 to 50 mJ m−2. The contribution of the acid–base (AB) component of surface free energy to the total surface free energy of the polymers ranged from 4 to 12%, which was considerably lower than that of cellulose. The cellulose ethers demonstrated near monopolarity and had dominant electron donor (Lewis-base) character. The overall trend in the values of the thermodynamic terms derived from the surface free energy parameters as indicators of hydrophilicity and hydration were in good agreement with the relative bulk solubility and hydration behavior of the polymers. Independent estimates of the AB character of the polymers from work of adhesion terms calculated from the liquid wetting data agreed with those obtained from the surface free energy parameters. Calculation of the work of adhesion with substrates of varying surface free energy parameters indicated that acid–base interactions made a major contribution to the total work of adhesion between cellulose ethers and bipolar surfaces. Although no direct correlation could be established between the surface free energy parameters and the type of substitution on the cellulose backbone for the cellulose ethers, the values of the terms derived from the LW/AB approach were consistent with those of cellulose and ethylcellulose. The LW/AB approach provides a reasonably consistent method for estimating the surface properties of cellulose ethers and the resulting surface free energy parameters are shown to relate to the interfacial properties of the polymers.

646. Lunkenheimer, K., “Problems involved in the practical performance of surface tension measurement of surfactant solutions by using the ring tensiometer,” Tenside Surfactants Detergents, 19, 272+, (May 1982).

227. Lunkenheimer, K., and K.D. Wandtke, “Determination of the surface tension of surfactant solutions applying the method of Lecomte de Nouy (ring tensiometer),” Colloid and Polymer Science, 259, 354-366, (1981).

Starting from a comparative assessment of the outstanding works on the ring method (du Noüy) for the determination of the surface tension of liquids and its solutions it is shown that the application of this method to surfactant solutions can lead to substantial errors if one follows conventional conditions. These errors are mainly connected with so far unknown phenomena occurring during the raising of the ring and concerning the influence of the hydrophilic vessel wall above the solution level and the stretching of the solution surface. This is demonstrated quantitatively with surfactant solutions of different kind and concentration. These effects can be explained theoretically very simply by introducing certain assumptions on the behaviour of a surfactant adsorption layer on the inner vessel wall. Conditions leading to the elimination of these errors are given, thus enabling the application of the ring method to the determination of the surface tension of surfactant solutions.

1994. Lunkenheimer, K., and K.D. Wantke, “On the applicability of the du Nouy (ring) tensiometer method for the determination of surface tensions of surfactant solution,” J. Colloid and Interface Science, 66, 579-581, (Oct 1978).

818. Lunkwitz, K., W. Burger, U. Lappan, H.-J. Brink, and A. Ferse, “Surface modification of fluoropolymers,” J. Adhesion Science and Technology, 9, 297-310, (1995) (also in Polymer Surface Modification: Relevance to Adhesion, K.L. Mittal, ed., p. 349-362, VSP, May 1996).

1900. Lunkwitz, K., W. Burger, U. Lappan, H.-J. Brink, and A. Ferse, “Surface modification of fluoropolymers,” J. Adhesion Science and Technology, 9, 297-310, (1995).

COF groups are formed by electron irradiation of PTFE [poly(tetrafluoroethylene)] powders in air, especially at the surface and in near-surface regions which can be easily hydrolysed to carboxyl groups by air humidity. The application of special additives during irradiation leads to modified micropowders. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy enables the detection of carboxyl and COF groups. γ-Irradiation of PTFE mainly causes degradation of the polymer; the concentration of carboxyl groups is much lower. Carboxylated micropowders created via radiation treatment retain the essential properties of PTFE. With increasing radiation dose, the increasing concentration of functional groups in the micropowders causes an increase in the surface free energy. This diminishes the strong water and oil repellency of PTFE in such a way that homogeneous incorporation into aqueous and organic liquids or other polymers is possible. So, the special properties of PTFE can be made effective in these media. Modified PTFE micropowders have been successfully tested in many application areas. The aim of our present work was to increase the concentration and vary the nature of functional groups by radiation-chemical methods or chemical conversion of COF groups (polymer-analogous reactions). A highly modified PTFE powder was used to reduce the repellent properties of PTFE diaphragms for application in brine electrolysis. The COF groups of the micropowders were modified by γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. The irradiation of FEP [poly(tetrafluoroethylene-co-hexafluoropropylene)] and PFA [poly(tetrafluoroethylene-co-perfluoroalkylvinylether)] yields products which contain a higher content of carboxyl groups than PTFE.

2949. Luque-Agudo, V., M. Hierro-Oliva, A.M. Gallardo-Moreno, and M.L. Gonzalez-Martin, “Effect of plasma treatment on the surface properties of polylactic acid films,” Polymer Testing, 96, (Apr 2021).

Plasma treatment is one of the methods currently used to obtain polymeric materials with surface properties appropriate to the functionality for which they were designed. However, the effects achieved after surface modification are not always long lasting and involve chemical and physical changes in the outermost layer. In this context, the effects of both argon and oxygen plasma on polylactic acid (PLA) films deposited on titanium were studied to determine which physical and chemical processes occur at the surface, and their duration. Regarding physical surface changes, there were scarcely any differences between both plasmas: roughness was very similar after treatments, root mean square height (Sq) being 10 times higher than the control, without plasma. Water contact angle (WCA) showed that the surface became more hydrophilic after application of the plasma, although hydrophilization was longer lasting in the case of argon treatment.

With regard to chemical changes, it was observed that the argon plasma treatment caused greater fragmentation of the polymer chains, and increased crosslinking between them. ToF-SIMS analysis made it possible to propose mechanisms to explain the formation of the fragments observed.

2845. Lustig, C., and S. Chakrapani, “UV-curable coatings: Options for challenging substrates,” UV + EB Technology, 7, 34-40, (Feb 2021).

2367. Lutzmann, H.H., and P.D. Frayer, “Method of bonding sheets in air by alternating current corona discharge and apparatus for same,” U.S. Patent 4096013, Jun 1978.

602. Luu, W.T., D.W. Bousfield, J. Kettle, and J. Aspler, “Influence of ink chemistry and surface energy on flexographic print quality,” in 11th Advanced Coating Fundamentals Symposium, TAPPI Press, Oct 2010.

2815. Lv, M., L. Wang, J. Liu, F. Kong, A. Ling, T. Wang, and Q. Wang, “Surface energy, hardness, and tribological properties of carbon-fiber/polytetrafluoroethylene composites modified by proton irradiation,” Tribology Intl., 132, 237-243, (Apr 2019).

The carbon fibers (CFs) reinforced polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) composites have been modified using proton irradiation, and the surface energy, hardness and tribological properties have been investigated before and after irradiation. The CFs increased the hardness and the wear resistance. Proton irradiation led to defluorination and carbonization of the CF/PTFE composite surface, and decreased the surface wettability and the surface energy. The irradiation depth was 820 nm from the material surface calculated with SRIM software package. In addition, the wear resistance was improved after proton irradiation. Proton irradiation improved the wear resistance of the composite and induced the material transfer from Cu alloy surface to CF/PTFE. These significant improvements could enable potential applications in aeronautics and smart medical materials.

2929. Lykke, K., “How proper treatment for flexible laminates helps achieve high bond strength, zero optical defects,” Converting Quarterly, 12, 64-68, (Oct 2022).

2950. Lykke, K., “The role of corona in flexible packaging lamination requires an understanding of filmic substrates,” PFFC, 28, 11-13, (Jan 2023).

1044. Lynch, J.B., P.D. Spence, D.E. Baker, and T.A. Postlethwaite, “Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment of polyethylene via a pulse dielectric barrier discharge: Comparison using various gas compositions versus corona discharge in air.,” J. Applied Polymer Science, 71, 319-331, (Jan 1999).

Modification of polyolefin surfaces is often necessary to achieve improved printability, lamination, etc. Although corona discharge and flame treatments can produce the higher surface energy needed for these applications, the properties of the resulting surfaces are not always optimal. Atmospheric pressure plasma is a surface modification technique that is similar to corona discharge treatment, but with more control, greater uniformity, and higher efficiency. Using an atmospheric pressure plasma unit with a dielectric barrier discharge generated using an asymmetric pulse voltage, the effects of different gases, powers, and linespeeds on polyethylene surface treatment were studied. Our results show that atmospheric pressure plasma can be used to achieve higher long-term wettability, higher surface oxygen and nitrogen, and a greater range of surface chemistries with better robustness versus standard corona treatment. Atomic force microscopy results suggest significant differences in the mechanism of surface functionalization versus etching and ablation depending on the gases used. © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 71: 319–331, 1999
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/%28SICI%291097-4628%2819990110%2971%3A2%3C319%3A%3AAID-APP16%3E3.0.CO%3B2-T

2890. Macdougall, G., and C. Ockrent, “Surface energy relations in liquid/solid systems 1. The adhesion of liquids to solids and a new method of determining the surface tension of liquids,” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 180, 151-173, (1942).

521. Mack, G.L., “The determination of contact angles from measurement of the dimensions of small bubbles and drops,” Intl. J. Physical Chemistry, 40, 159+, (1936).

228. Mackey, C.D., “Good adhesive bonding starts with surface preparation,” Adhesives Age, 41, 30-32, (Jun 1998).

3035. Madeira, D.M.F., O. Vieira, L.A. Pinheiro, and B. de Melo Carvalho, “Correlation between surface energy and adhesion force of polyethylene/paperboard: A predictive tool for quality control in laminated packaging,” Intl. J. Chemical Engineering, 2018, (Jun 2018).

522. Maden, S., L.E. McDaniels, and I.R. Harrison, “Surface modifications in polymer - metal laminates,” in ANTEC 90, 1820-1823, Society of Plastics Engineers, 1990.

2215. Madhusoodhanan, S., S. Sung, E. Delp, et al, “Dynamic surface tension of digital UV curable inks,” Ink World, 14, 0, (Mar 2008).

2627. Mahmood, A.A., “Surface energy: An applied experimental design for novel UV-curable coatings,” Presented at RadTech 2016, May 2016.

1865. Majumder, P.S., and A.K. Bhowmick, “Electron beam-initiated surface modification of elastomers,” J. Adhesion Science and Technology, 12, 831-856, (1998).

Ethylene-propylene diene monomer (EPDM) containing dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) and ethylidene norbornene (ENB) as the termonomers, styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), and acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) have been surface-modified by 10% methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) solutions of trimethylol propane triacrylate (TMPTA) at an irradiation dose of 100 kGy. The irradiation dose and TMPTA concentration were optimized using samples treated with 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50% TMPTA and 50, 100, 200, and 500 kGy doses. Two per cent solutions of acrylate rubber having diene, chloro, and epoxy groups at the reactive sites and tripropyleneglycol diacrylate (TPGDA) and tetramethylol methane tetracrylate (TMMT) were also employed as the surface modifiers. The level and nature of the vulcanization system were varied. The modified rubbers were characterized by attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and contact angle measurements. IR and XPS studies confirmed the generation of polar groups such as CDouble BondO and Single BondCSingle BondOSingle BondC on the surfaces. The contact angles and the surface energy change with the nature of the modifiers, rubbers, diene monomers, the crosslinking system and the level of the curing agent. The total surface energy and the thermodynamic work of adhesion of the different systems have been correlated with the amount and the nature of the polar groups generated.

1133. Mancinelli, S., “Flame treatment technology: process and its applications,” Presented at AIMCAL 2005 Fall Technical Conference, Oct 2005.

2040. Mancinelli, S., “Flame treatment technology for converting industry,” in 2014 PLACE Conference Proceedings, TAPPI Press, May 2014.

2922. Mancinelli, S., “Flame treatment technology and its applications,” J. Applied Packaging Research, 10, (2018).

This paper, as the title underlines, will be focused on flame treatment technology applications, mainly on BOPP substrates.

After an introduction regarding flame chemistry and BOPP surface activation mechanisms, this paper will be focused on unique flame treatment oxidation performances, in comparison with other treatment methods actually used in the market.

Focus will then be moved to the characteristics and advantages of using flame treatment for film surface treatment. In particular, a comparison will be run with other surface treatment technologies (corona surface treatment and atmospheric plasma treatment) in terms of:

  • q surface energy after treatment;
  • surface oxidation mechanisms and chemical species involved;
  • quantity of oxygen on treated surface (oxidation level);
  • quality of oxygen on treated surface;
  • adhesion;
  • printability/print quality.

Typical and new applications of flame treatment will be presented, underlining benefits coming from flame usage for pretreating different types of skins. Finally, the paper will try to make rid of prejudices and misinformation concerning flame treatment process applications, especially to certain kind of webs and substrates.

2567. Mandolini, P., “Polarized flame treatment for BOPP and CPP films and comparison with other treatment methods,” in 2008 PLACE Conference Proceedings, 710-714, TAPPI Press, Sep 2008.

1548. Manges, M., “Plasma treatment for medical device assembly,” Moll Medical, Seagrove Div., Apr 2006.

704. Mangipudi, V.S., M. Tirrell, and A.V. Pocius, “The use of the surface forces apparatus in the study of adhesion: polymer solid surface energies and the effect of surface treatment,” Presented at First International Congress on Adhesion Science and Technology, Oct 1995.

1815. Mangipudi, V.S., M. Tirrell, and A.V. Pocius, “Direct measurement of molecular level adhesion between poly(ethylene terephthalate) and polyethylene films: Determination of surface and interfacial energies,” J. Adhesion Science and Technology, 8, 1251-1270, (1994) (also in Fundamentals of Adhesion and Interfaces, D.S. Rimai, L.P. DeMejo, and K.L. Mittal, eds., p. 205-224, VSP, Dec 1995).

The strength of an adhesive bond depends on the thermodynamic work of adhesion, among other properties. In this paper, we report the direct measurement of the thermodynamic work of cohesion and adhesion between poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and polyethylene (PE) films. The pull-off force between polymer surfaces was measured using the surface forces apparatus (SFA). Thermodynamic work of adhesion was determined from pull-off force measurements using the theory of contact mechanics developed by Johnson, Kendall, and Roberts (JKR theory). The values of the surface energies of PET and PE, and the interfacial energy between PET and PE were obtained from these measurements. The dependence of the measured values of the work of adhesion on the rate of separation, time in contact, and other variables that could reflect an irreversible contribution to the measured adhesion was found to be negligible. The critical surface tensions of PET and PE were determined from contact angle measurements. The critical surface tension of wetting depends on the characteristics of the probe liquids. The surface energy of PET determined by the direct force measurements is higher than the critical surface tension of wetting. These values are 61.2 mJ/m2 and about 43 mJ/m , respectively. However, in the case of PE the surface energy determined using the SFA and the critical surface tension of wetting are about the same, 33 mJ/m2. The interfacial energy between PET and PE, obtained from direct measurements, is about 17.1 mJ/m2.

898. Mangipudi, V.S., and A. Falsifi, “Direct estimation of the adhesion of solid polymers,” in Adhesion Science and Engineering: Vol. 1 - The Mechanics of Adhesion; Vol. 2 - Surfaces, Chemistry and Applications, Dillard, D.A., and A.V. Pocius, eds., 75-138(V2), Elsevier, Oct 2002.

2651. Mania, D.M., “Is there a correlation between contact angle and stain repellency?,” Coatings World, 21, 99-105, (Jul 2016).

2720. Manko, D., A. Zdziennicka, K. Szymczyk, and B. Janczuk, “Wettability of polytetrafluoroethylene and polymethyl methacrylate by aqueous solutions of TX-100 and TX-165 mixture with propanol,” J. Adhesion Science and Technology, 29, 1081-1095, (2015).

The measurements of the contact angle of the aqueous solutions of TX-100 and TX-165 mixture with propanol on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) were carried out. On the basis of the obtained results, the dependence between the cosine of contact angle and surface tension as well as between the adhesion and surface tension of the solutions in the light of the work of adhesion of the solutions to the PTFE and PMMA surface was discussed. The dependence between the adhesion and surface tension for PMMA was correlated to the surface concentration of propanol as well as TX-100 and TX-165 mixture concentration determined from the Frumkin equation at the PMMA-air, PMMA-solution and solution–air interfaces. For this purpose, the surface tension of PMMA covered by a surface active agent film was determined using the Neumann et al. equation and next the PMMA–solution interface tension was evaluated from the Young equation. The values of the surface tension of PMMA covered by propanol and surfactants mixture layer were applied to describe the changes of the adhesion work of solutions to PMMA surface as a function of propanol and surfactants mixture concentration. The adhesion work of the aqueous solutions of TX-100 and TX-165 mixture with propanol to the PTFE and PMMA surfaces was discussed in the light of the adhesion work of particular components of the solutions. On the basis of the results obtained from the contact angle measurements, the standard Gibbs free energy of adsorption of particular components of solution was also considered.

2354. Mantell, R.M., “Method of treating synthetic resinous material to increase the wettability thereof,” U.S. Patent 3309299, Mar 1967.

2338. Mantell, R.M., and W.L. Ormand, “Activation of plastic surfaces in a plasmajet,” Industrial & Engineering Chemistry, 3, 300-303, (Dec 1964).

523. Mapleston, P., “Plasma technology progress improves options in surface treatment,” Modern Plastics Intl., 20, 74-79, (Oct 1990).

 

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