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ACCU DYNE TEST ™ Bibliography

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2860. Yonemoto, Y., “Estimating critical surface tension from droplet spreading area,” Physics Letters A, 384, (April 2020).

Critical surface tension (CST) is a measure of solid surface tension and is mainly determined by measuring the contact angle of a droplet on a target solid surface. The concept of CST makes it possible to determine solid surface tension without any unprovable assumptions such as the Fowkes hypothesis. However, it requires somewhat special devices and skills for measuring the contact angle. In this work, we propose a simple method to determine the CST of a solid by measuring the droplet spreading area. This method is developed by combining the conventional CST with a simple analytical droplet model. The difference in estimated CSTs between our method and the conventional one is within 3.0%. Our method enables a quick and simple evaluation of the solid surface tension without special devices for measuring the contact angle.

2965. Altay, B.N., R. Ma, P.D. Fleming, M.J. Joyce, A. Anand, et al, “Surface free energy estimation: A new methodology for solid surfaces,” Advanced Materials Interfaces, 7, (Mar 2020).

An interpretation of solid surfaces is generated based on physical considerations and the laws of thermodynamics. Like the widely used Owens–Wendt (OW) method, the proposed method uses liquids for characterization. Each liquid provides an absolute lower bound on the surface energy with some uncertainty from measurement variations. If multiple liquids are employed, the largest lower bound is taken as the most accurate, with uncertainty due to measurement errors. The more liquids used, the more accurate is the greatest lower bound. This method links generalizations of the Good–Girifalco equation with a general thermodynamic inequality relating the three-interfacial tensions in a three-phase equilibrium system. The method always satisfies this inequality with better than a 65% certainty. However, the OW seldom, if ever, conforms to this inequality and even then, the degree of satisfaction is insignificant. A reconciliation of the two methods is proposed based on rescaling the OW surface energies to conform to the inequality. This enables interpretations of dispersion and polar components of the surface energy, which are thermodynamically self-consistent. The proposed method is also capable of dealing with material exchange between liquid and solid phases, when the surface tension and contact angle of the saturated liquids can be measured.

2833. Kiel, A., “Finding the sweet spot and the right corona treater for polypropylene,”, Mar 2020.

2812. Smith, R.E., “Dyne testing at elevated temperatures and/or humidity levels,”, Mar 2020.

2811. Ceschan, M., and R.E. Smith, “In depth look at dyne testing,”, Mar 2020.

2807. Smith, R.E., “Overtreatment of TPO,”, Feb 2020.

2806. Smith, R.E., “What dyne levels should I be testing at?,”, Feb 2020.

2804. Mount, E.M. III, “How do we design a substrate to have enhanced surface chemistry? Part 2 of 2,”, Feb 2020 (also in Converting Quarterly, V. 10, p. 12-13, Feb 2020).

2810. Gilbertson, T.J., “Hey buddy can you spare a dyne?,” PFFC, 25, 16-18, (Jan 2020).

2809. Hyllberg, B., “Dielectrics and their role with corona treaters,” PFFC, 25, 8-11, (Jan 2020).

2997. Riyanto, E., “Surface treatment of polyimide using atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma,” ScienceAsia, 46, 444-449, (2020).

In this study, polyimide was treated by atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma using a helium and/or helium-oxygen mixture gasses. The polyimide was placed between copper electrodes with dielectric material installed on the cathode electrode. To investigate the surface treatment, the plasmas as a function of power, treatment time, and plasma gasses were introduced on the polyimide substrate. The experimental results show that the polyimide treated by dielectric barrier discharge plasma increases the wetting property. This property can be attributed to the surface roughness and the water compatible functional groups. The roughness increases by helium plasma treatment and can be further improved by increasing plasma power or the presence of oxygen in the helium-oxygen mixture plasma. On the other hand, the plasma surface treatment led to formation of oxygen related functional groups of -C=O and -OH.

2969. Shiomura, N., T. Sekine, and D. Yang, “Contact angle hysteresis of pressure-sensitive adhesives due to adhesion tension relaxation,” in Advances in Contact Angle, Wettability and Adhesion (Vol 4), K.L. Mittal, ed., 223-237, Scrivener, Oct 2019.

In this paper, several acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs) were studied through adhesion tension relaxation (ATR) technique introduced by Kasemura and Takahashi. These acrylic PSA samples were also analyzed through static contact angle, surface free energy, dynamic contact angle hysteresis, and peel force measurements. The study has shown that the acrylic PSAs are multicomponent polymeric systems which reorient their surface segments so as to minimize interfacial tension in response to environmental changes. Therefore, it is important to consider the mobility of the surface segments of PSAs in understanding their contact angle hysteresis. Further, the ATR technique has proven to be useful in estimating such mobility.

2019. Etzler, F.M., “Determination of the surface free energy of solid surfaces:Can the best model be found,” in Advances in Contact Angle, Wettability and Adhesion (Vol. 4), K.L. Mittal, ed., 73-98, Scrivener, Oct 2019.

In order to determine the surface free energy of a solid, it is necessary to measure contact angles of a variety of liquids on a given solid. The models investigated, here, include those proposed by Zisman, Kwok and Neumann; Owens and Wendt; van Oss, Chaudhury and Good, as well as Chen and Chang. In this chapter, the relative merits of these models are explored. The use of an overdetermined data set allows one to assess the statistical quality of the model and the estimated parameters. Liquids that show unusual behaviors (eg stick-slip) are unsuitable for determination of surface free energy. In this work, it will not be possible to examine the quality of each contact angle measurement. Rather, a relative assessment of various models is made. The results reported here indicate that no more than two adjustable parameters can be statistically justified. The Zisman, Kwok-Neumann models and a version of the van Oss, Chaudhury and Good model where the value of γ+ for the solid surface equals zero appear to be statistically viable. γ+ is the parameter that assesses the acidic character of the surface. These models yield similar values for the total surface free energy of the polymer surfaces.

2800. Wolf, R.A., “Novel surface-treatment gap-adjustment technology automatically fits web changes,” Converting Quarterly, 9, 53-56, (201910).

2799. Mount, E.M. III, “Substrate secrets: How do we design a substrate to have enhanced surface chemistry? Part 1,” Converting Quarterly, 9, 12, (Oct 2019) (also in

2797. Hrinya, G., “Corona treaters: This valuable converting process helps avoid delivery delays and costly reprints,” Label & Narrow Web, 24, 76-79, (Oct 2019).

2926. no author cited, “What is the best fast & accurate alternative to dyne testing?,” Brighton Science, Aug 2019.

2795. Ranowsky, A., “Contact angle fundamentals: What you actually need to know,”, Aug 2019.

2855. no author cited, “Pretreatment methods for glass,”, July 2019.

3012. Yu, W., and W. Hou, “Correlations of surface free energy and solubility parameters for solid substances,” J. Colloid and Interface Science, 544, 8-13, (May 2019).

Hypothesis: Both the surface free energy (γ) and solubility (δ) parameters of substances are related to their cohesive energies which are decided by intermolecular interactions, and there should be some intrinsic relationships between the two parameters. Understanding of the γ-δ correlations is of great fundamental and practical importance. Several empirical γ-δ equations have been proposed so far, but their application to solids is limited. This is because the molar volume (V~) as a parameter exists in these equations while the V~ of solids is commonly hard to be obtained. Hence, the development of γ-δ equations without the parameter V~ is essential for solids.

Method: The γ and δ data of 21 solids including polymers and layered solid materials were chosen, and possible γ-δ relationships were systematically explored using the parameter data of solids by a trial and error fitting method.

Finding: Six γ-δ equations without the parameter V~ are proposed. The γ parameters include total (γt), dispersive (γd), and polar (γp) ones, and the δ parameters include the Hildebrand parameter (δt) and the Hansen dispersive (δd), polar (δp), and hydrogen-bonding (δh) ones. Interestingly, the so-obtained V~-free γ-δ equations are also valid for most liquids including nonpolar and polar ones. These γ-δ equations can provide a way to estimate non-measurable parameters from measurable parameters for solid materials, which is beneficial to the application of the characteristic parameters (γ and δ) for solid material engineering.

2815. Lv, M., L. Wang, J. Liu, F. Kong, A. Ling, T. Wang, and Q. Wang, “Surface energy, hardness, and tribological properties of carbon-fiber/polytetrafluoroethylene composites modified by proton irradiation,” Tribology Intl., 132, 237-243, (Apr 2019).

The carbon fibers (CFs) reinforced polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) composites have been modified using proton irradiation, and the surface energy, hardness and tribological properties have been investigated before and after irradiation. The CFs increased the hardness and the wear resistance. Proton irradiation led to defluorination and carbonization of the CF/PTFE composite surface, and decreased the surface wettability and the surface energy. The irradiation depth was 820 nm from the material surface calculated with SRIM software package. In addition, the wear resistance was improved after proton irradiation. Proton irradiation improved the wear resistance of the composite and induced the material transfer from Cu alloy surface to CF/PTFE. These significant improvements could enable potential applications in aeronautics and smart medical materials.

2794. Sabreen, S.R., “Inkjet printing and adhesion of low surface energy polymers,” Plastics Decorating, 26-28, (Apr 2019).

1632. Dai, L., and D. Xu, “Polyethylene surface enhancement by corona and chemical co-treatment,” Tetrahedron Letters, 60, 1005-1010, (Apr 2019).

Corona and chemical treatment worked cooperatively for increasing and stabilizing the polyethylene film surface energy. Gentle and varied corona discharge treatment conditions were applied for each polyethylene film to reach 40 dynes/cm. A rather low blending amount of additive could stabilize the film surface energy obviously. Compared with neat PE film, of which the surface energy decreased to 36 dynes/cm at the 12th day, films blended with 1000 ppm A7-OH or PE-PEG 4k -PE showed stable surface energy (36–38 dynes/cm) over 150 days. The influence of industrial applied slipping agent was investigated as well. Morphological and chemical changes were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). The surface energy was determined by the dyne pens. Mechanism investigation of hydrophilization and hydrophobic recovery processes showed that proper crystallization behavior and enough C[dbnd]O groups on the film surface guarantee satisfactory stability of the surface energy.

2793. Lin, K., M. Vuckovac, M. Latikka, T. Huhtamiiki, and R.H.A. Ras, “Improving surface-wetting characterization,” Science, 363, 1147-1148, (Mar 2019).

Highly hydrophobic surfaces have numerous useful properties; for example, they can shed water, be self-cleaning, and prevent fogging (1, 2). Surface hydrophobicity is generally characterized with contact angle (CA) goniometry. With a history of more than 200 years (3), the measurement of CAs was and still is considered the gold standard in wettability characterization, serving to benchmark surfaces across the entire wettability spectrum from superhydrophilic (CA of 0°) to superhydrophobic (CA of 150° to 180°). However, apart from a few reports [e.g., (48)], the inherent measurement inaccuracy of the CA goniometer has been largely overlooked by its users. The development of next-generation liquid-repellent coatings depends on raising awareness of the limitations of CA measurements and adopting more sensitive methods that measure forces.

2792. Sabreen, S.R., “Adhesion enhancement of UV-cure inks onto polymers by gas-phase plasma pretreatments,” UV + EB Technology, 5, 43-50, (Feb 2019).

2791. Gatenby, A., “Surface tension - rings, bubbles, drops, and plates,”, Feb 2019.

1775. Gilbertson, T.J., and M. Plantier, “Blame the corona treater: The truth about watt density, dyne levels & adhesion,” Converting Solutions, 24, 22-27, (Feb 2019).

2826. Sabreen, S.R., “Advances in atmospheric plasma treatment for polymer adhesion,”, Dec 2018.

2825. Sabreen, S.R., “Adhesion bonding of high-performance polymers,”, Nov 2018.

2740. Smith, R.E., “Shelf life of 72 dyne/cm surface tension test fluids,”, Nov 2018.

2622. Smith, R.E., “Dyne testing of materials to be processed in a dry room,”, Nov 2018.

2519. Smith, R.E., “Reason for 2 second timeframe in dyne testing,”, Nov 2018.

2971. Izdebska-Podsiadly, J., “Application of plasma in printed surfaces,” in Non-Thermal Plasma Technology for Polymeric Materials: Applications in Composites, Nanostructured Materials and Biomedical Fields, S. Thomas, M. Mozetic, U. Cvelbar, P. Spatenka, and K.M. Praveen, eds., 159-191, Elsevier, Oct 2018.

This chapter describes an application of plasma in printed substrates and the influence of plasma treatment on polymers and polymeric composites, their printability and prints quality. Plasma is one of the physical methods of surface modification that includes, among others, corona, flame, and laser treatment. Contrary to the corona treatment, plasma activation enables very uniform modification. Due to the attributes of polymers, particularly their thermal sensitivity, their modification is almost exclusively done using cold plasma, which described in depth in this chapter. Additionally, the changes induced in the material are explained. Especially substrate wettability and its roughness are of paramount importance, impacting printability significantly. Moreover, the influence of selected parameters of plasma treatment on surface modification is presented. Due to the fact that changes induced in the material surface are not permanent, the chapter also goes into more detail about the aging process in relation to the type of polymer, conditions of plasma activation, and storage.

2824. Sabreen, S.R., “Flame plasma treatment: The importance of zero gas pressure regulators,” importance-of-zero-gas-pressure-regulators, Oct 2018.

2741. Lee, W., “Developments in surface treatment solutions,” Plastics Decorating, 22-23, (Oct 2018).

2803. no author cited, “How to measure dyne levels in substrates,”, Sep 2018.

2964. Huhtamaki, T., X. Tian, J.T. Korhonen, and R.H.A. Ras, “Surface-wetting characterization using contact-angle measurements,” Nature Protocols, 13, 1521-1538, (Aug 2018).

Wetting, the process of water interacting with a surface, is critical in our everyday lives and in many biological and technological systems. The contact angle is the angle at the interface where water, air and solid meet, and its value is a measure of how likely the surface is to be wetted by the water. Low contact-angle values demonstrate a tendency of the water to spread and adhere to the surface, whereas high contact-angle values show the surface’s tendency to repel water. The most common method for surface-wetting characterization is sessile-drop goniometry, due to its simplicity. The method determines the contact angle from the shape of the droplet and can be applied to a wide variety of materials, from biological surfaces to polymers, metals, ceramics, minerals and so on. The apparent simplicity of the method is misleading, however, and obtaining meaningful results requires minimization of random and systematic errors. This article provides a protocol for performing reliable and reproducible measurements of the advancing contact angle (ACA) and the receding contact angle (RCA) by slowly increasing and reducing the volume of a probe drop, respectively. One pair of ACA and RCA measurements takes ~15–20 min to complete, whereas the whole protocol with repeat measurements may take ~1–2 h. This protocol focuses on using water as a probe liquid, and advice is given on how it can be modified for the use of other probe liquids.

2211. Wolf, R.A., “Comparison of atmospheric plasma and corona treatments in promoting seal strength,” Converting Quarterly, 6, 72-78, (Aug 2018).

2739. Banton, R., B. Casey, C. Maus, and M. Carroll, “Adhesion promotion for UV coatings and inks onto difficult plastic substrates,” Coatings World, 23, 78-84, (Jul 2018).

3035. Madeira, D.M.F., O. Vieira, L.A. Pinheiro, and B. de Melo Carvalho, “Correlation between surface energy and adhesion force of polyethylene/paperboard: A predictive tool for quality control in laminated packaging,” Intl. J. Chemical Engineering, 2018, (Jun 2018).


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