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2739. Banton, R., B. Casey, C. Maus, and M. Carroll, “Adhesion promotion for UV coatings and inks onto difficult plastic substrates,” Coatings World, 23, 78-84, (Jul 2018).

2708. Baptista, D., L. Muszynski, D. Gardner, and E. Atzema, “An experimental method for three-dimensional dynamic contact angle analysis,” J. Adhesion Science and Technology, 26, 2199-2215, (2012).

Droplet dynamics analysis concerns the measurements of droplet volume, cap and base areas and contact angles, as they change in time to study evaporation, wettability, adhesion and other surface phenomena and properties. In a typical procedure, the two-dimensional measurements are based on a series of images recorded at successive stages of the experiment from a single view. Only a few basic dimensions of sessile droplets are commonly measured from such images, while many other quantities of interest are derived utilizing geometrical relationships. The reliability of these calculations is limited by the necessary assumption that the droplet shape can be approximated as a spherical cap. In reality, the sessile droplet shapes are influenced by gravity, liquid surface tension, local surface anisotropy and microstructure, which often produce non-spherical cap shapes.

This paper describes an experimental methodology for determination of key parameters, such as volume and contact angle for dynamic sessile droplets that can be approximated either by spherical or ellipsoidal cap geometries. In this method, images collected simultaneously from three cameras positioned orthogonally to each other are used to record the dynamic behavior of non-spherical droplets. Droplet shape is approximated as an ellipsoid of arbitrary orientation with respect to the cameras, which allows determination of volume and contact angle along the base perimeter. A major advantage of this method is that the dynamic parameters of droplets on anisotropic surfaces can be determined even when the orientation of the axes changes throughout the droplet lifetime. The method is illustrated with experimental results for a spherical and an ellipsoidal droplet.

1513. Barankova, H., and L. Bardos, “Cold atmospheric plasma sources for surface treatment,” in 46th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings, 427-430, Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2003.

2502. Bardos, L, and H. Barankova, “Plasma processes at atmospheric and low pressures,” Vacuum, 83, 522-527, (Oct 2006).

In the last few decades there has been an intense development in non-equilibrium (“cold”) plasma surface processing systems at atmospheric pressure. This new trend is stimulated mainly to decrease equipment costs by avoiding expensive pumping systems of conventional low-pressure plasma devices. This work summarizes physical and practical limitations where atmospheric plasmas cannot compete with low-pressure plasma and vice-versa. As the processing conditions for atmospheric plasma are rather different from reduced pressure systems in many cases these conditions may increase final equipment costs substantially. In this work we briefly review the main principles, advantages and drawbacks of atmospheric plasma for a better understanding of the capabilities and limitations of the atmospheric plasma processing technology compared with conventional low-pressure plasma processing.

1413. Bardos, L., and H. Barankova, “Radio frequency hollow cathode source for large area cold atmospheric plasma applications,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Metallurgical Coatings and Thin Films, American Vacuum Society, 2000 (also in Surface and Coatings Technology, Nov 2000, Vol. 133, p. 522-527).

A new type of radio frequency (rf) large area non equilibrium (‘cold’) plasma source operating at atmospheric gas pressures in an open reactor was presented. The source was based on a specially designed rf electrode with the gas flowing through an inner microstructure integrated in the electrode. A cylindrical source of 35 mm in diameter with approximately 900 hollow cathodes forming an integrated open structure and a rectangular 120×20 mm2 source of this type were tested. A typical rf power for the source operation is only several tens of watts. Experiments show that the performance of both sources at atmospheric pressure was substantially better in comparison with single cylindrical rf hollow cathodes of 400 μm in diameter. The argon and neon plasmas generated in the space between the main electrode and the substrate holder were uniform and very stable. The optical emission spectroscopy study, the rf current, voltage and impedance measurements, as well as the substrate temperature tests reveal three different power dependent regimes of these plasma sources. Effects of plasma treatment of surfaces were studied on both temperature sensitive samples (plastic webs) and metals (aluminum, steel). An effective cleaning of Al samples was observed after 5 min treatment in the neon plasma in an open reactor. After 1 s treatment of the Polyethylene web the surface tension increases from values<34 mN/m to values ⩾56 mN/m. Design of sources allows their direct scaling up and may bring a number of interesting applications in large area cold atmospheric plasma processing.

2501. Bardos, L., and H. Barankova, “Cold atmosphere plasma: Sources, processes, and applications,” Thin Solid Films, 518, 6705-6713, (Sep 2010).

Atmospheric pressure gas discharge plasmas, especially those operated at energy non-equilibrium and low gas temperatures, have recently become a subject of great interest for a wide variety of technologies including surface treatment and thin-film deposition. A driving force for these developments is the avoidance of expensive equipment required for competing vacuum-based plasma technologies. Although there are many applications where non-equilibrium (cold) plasma at atmospheric and higher pressures represents a substantial advantage, there are also a number of applications where low-pressure plasmas simply cannot be replaced due to specific properties and limitations of the atmospheric plasma and related equipment. In this critical review, the primary principles and characteristics of the cold atmospheric plasma and differences from vacuum-based plasma processes are described and discussed to provide a better understanding of the capabilities and limits of emerging atmospheric plasma technologies.

1773. Bargeman, D., “Contact angles on nonpolar solids,” J. Colloid and Interface Science, 40, 344-348, (Sep 1972).

Contact angles of polar liquids on various nonpolar solids immersed in a nonpolar liquid have been measured. They agreed satisfactorily with values calculated by combining Young's equation either with measured contact angle data of the liquids on the substrates in air, or with the Fowkes relation valid at each of the interfaces. The latter method also applies when one of the liquids spreads on the substrate in air. Polyethene, polystyrene, polytetrafluorethene and glyceryltristearate were used as nonpolar solids; paraffin oil and heptane as nonpolar liquids; water and glycerol as polar liquids.

2278. Barni, R., C. Riccardi, E. Selli, M.R. Massafra, B. Marcandelli, et al, “Wettability and dyeability modulation of poly(ethylene terephthalate) fibers through cold SF6 plasma treatment,” Plasma Processes and Polymers, 2, 64-72, (Jan 2005).

Surface modification induced on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fibers by cold SF6 plasma treatment has been investigated systematically as a function of plasma device parameters. The observed wettability modifications of fibers plasma-treated under different operating conditions were correlated to their dyeability modifications and to the changes in surface chemical composition, determined by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), and topography, investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Optical emission spectra from the SF6 plasma at different pressures gave information on its content of fluorine atoms. A striking transition was observed between the increased hydrophilicity and high dyeability, imparted by plasma treatment at low pressure (<0.2 mbar), mainly as a consequence of surface etching and surface activation, and the increased hydrophobicity, imparted by plasma treatment in the higher pressure regime (0.2–0.4 mbar), consequent to extended surface fluorination.

2886. Bartell, F.E., and A.D. Wooley, “Solid-liquid-air contact angles and their dependence upon the surface condition of the solid,” J. American Chemical Society, 55, 3518-3527, (1933).

1099. Barthwal, S.K., A.K. Panwar, and S. Ray, “Dynamic evolution of contact angle on solid substrates during evaporation,” in Contact Angle, Wettability and Adhesion, Vol. 3, K.L. Mittal, ed., 175-190, VSP, Nov 2003.

The interfacial forces which determine the interaction between a liquid and solid surface have been investigated under dynamic conditions of evaporation. The evaporation characteristics of probe liquids and their influence on the droplet of the liquid on a solid substrate have been investigated. The changes in mass, contact angle, solid–liquid contact radius during evaporation of droplets (3-90 mg) of water on glass, polycarbonate and PTFE substrates and droplets of methyl alcohol on polycarbonate, polypropylene, PTFE and high density polyethylene substrates have been examined. The evolution of contact angle and contact radius with the progress of evaporation has been investigated for each droplet-substrate system in order to identify the common trend. In the systems of water droplets on polycarbonate and glass, the contact radius remained constant with the progress of evaporation but such behavior was not observed in the case of methyl alcohol on polycarbonate, polypropylene, PTFE and high density polyethylene.

415. Barton, A.F.M., “Applications of solubility parameters and other cohesion parameters in polymer science and technology,” Pure and Applied Chemistry, 57, 905-912, (1985).

Cohesion parameters (solubility parameters) provide one of the simplest methods of correlating and predicting the cohesive and adhesive properties of polymers and solvents from a knowledge of the properties of the individual components alone. It is therefore not surprising that there are severe limitations on their precision. Whether or not any correlation or prediction is ‘satisfactory’ depends on the precision that is expected or needed. When one is looking for relatively minor differences in behaviour, such as solubility differences between isomeric liquids or between polymers with different degrees of cross-linking, cohesion parameters may not be appropriate. The most important situation where caution is required in using Hildebrand parameters or Hansen parameters is where the extent of donor-acceptor (Lewis acid-Lewis base) interactions(particularly hydrogen bonding) within a component is very different from that between components.

855. Barton, A.F.M., Handbook of Solubility Parameters and Other Cohesion Parameters, 2nd Ed., CRC Press, Oct 1991.

14. Bascom, W.D., “The wetting behavior of fibers,” in Modern Approaches to Wettability: Theory and Applications, Schrader, M.E., and G.I. Loeb, eds., 359-373, Plenum Press, 1992.

Historically, the technologies most interested in the wetting of fibers have been those involved in the processing of textiles.(1, 2) Much of the early scientific literature on wetting was concerned with liquid penetration into fabrics and other porous solids.(3) More recently, the rapid development of fiber reinforced composites, notably carbon fiber and glass fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP, GFRP), has generated a renewed interest in the wetting of fibers. However, in the interim there has been a change in the scientific attitude toward the use of contact angle measurements as a means of characterizing the surface chemical constitution of solids. In the early literature, the contact angle was viewed as a characteristic of the fiber and a parameter in the capillarity equations for liquid penetration. Due in large measure to the studies by W. A Zisman and co-workers, there has been a change in attitude toward the physical significance of contact angle measurements. It is now recognized that the contact angle can be a highly sensitive tool for surface characterization. Consequently, there is a growing body of literature on the wetting of textile fibers and fibers used in composites aimed at surface chemical characterization as well as the processing of these fibers into composite materials.

1958. Bascom, W.D., and W.-J. Chen, “Effect of plasma treatment on the adhesion of carbon fibers to thermoplastic plastics,” J. Adhesion, 34, 99-119, (Jun 1991).

A study has been made of the effect of RF plasmas on the adhesion of carbon fibers to polycarbonate and polysulfone. Treatment in oxygen plasma significantly increased the adhesion to both polymers. The effect is lost if the treated fiber is stored in air for a week. Surface analysis using XPS indicated an increase in atom percent oxygen but the spectra were unchanged for the stored fibers even though there had been a significant loss in adhesion. It is suggested that oxygen surface functionality is responsible for the improved adhesion but that this surface activation is lost on storage. Due to a sampling depth of 5-10 nm, XPS would not be expected to detect this small change in surface functionality.

1. Bassemir, R.W., and R. Krishnan, “Surface phenomena in waterbased flexo inks for printing on polyethylene films,” in Surface Phenomena and Fine Particles in Water-Based Coatings and Printing Technology, Sharma, M.K., and F.J. Micale, eds., 27-34, Plenum Press, 1991.

In the Flexographic printing of polyethylene films with waterbased flexo inks, the partitioning of the surfactants between film/ink, pigment/ water, ink/air interfaces plays a major role in determining the printability. In addition, in formulations containing nonionic surfactants the equilibrium surface properties are much different from the diffusion limited dynamic properties. Problems associated with the printability are examined from an analysis of the above surface chemical considerations.

416. Bassemir, R.W., and R. Krishnan, “Practical applications of surface energy measurements in flexography,” Flexo, 15, 31-40, (Jul 1990).

2002. Baszkin, A., M. Nishino, and L. Ter Minassian-Seraga, “Solid-liquid adhesion of oxidized polyethylene films: Effect of temperature,” J. Colloid and Interface Science, 54, 317-328, (Mar 1976).

The temperature effect on the wettability of oxidized polyethylene films with known surface densities shows a decrease in the free energy of adhesion at about 85°C for different liquids employed with varying numbers of OH groups. The thermograms obtained by differential thermal analysis show that the beginning of the melting transition is at about 85°C. The close agreement between the temperature at the beginning of the melting transition and the decrease of the wettability of oxidized polyethylene films is interpreted by the increase of the chain mobility leading to the redistribution of external polar groups initially located at the solid—air interface. We express the observed phenomenon as a degree of the overturn of macromolecular chains. The results obtained are discussed in relation to the number of OH groups present in the liquids and their ability to form hydrogen bonds.

3. Baszkin, A., M. Nishino, and L. Ter-Minassian-Saraga, “Solid-liquid adhesion of oxidized polyethylene films.Effect of temperature on polar forces,” J. Colloid and Interface Science, 59, 516-524, (1977).

The nonpolar polyethylene is transformed by oxidation into a superficially polar polyethylene with a known surface density of carbonyl groups. The dispersion and polar contributions to the free energy of adhesion for the systems oxidized and unoxidized polyethylene with n-octane, water, and methylene iodide are calculated. The variation of γsd, γsp, and γsl with temperature is found to verify the geometric mean equation for the interfacial free energy γsl = γs + γl − 2 (γsdγld)12 − 2(γspγlp)12. The results are analyzed and the importance of the dispersion and polar interactions and their dependence on temperature is discussed.

2007. Baszkin, A., and L. Ter Minassian-Saraga, “Wetting of polyethylene by water, methylene iodide and methylene iodide-decalin mixtures,” J. Colloid and Interface Science, 43, 190-202, (Apr 1973).

The wettability of oxidized polyethylene films was studied with pure liquids (water and methylene iodide) and practically nonpolar mixtures of Decalin and methylene iodide. A linear variation was found of the wettability of these films with the chemical composition of their surfaces (determined by adsorption of radioactive 45Ca ions).

A value of γsd for the polyethylene was found with the nonpolar mixtures of methylene iodide and Decalin and the values of the solid-liquid polar interactions (IslP) for oxidized polyethylene were deduced.

Dipole-dipole and induced dipole-dipole interactions between the pure liquids and the oxidized and unoxidized polyethylene were calculated for two possible orientations of the hydrocarbon chains to the surface and compared with the experimental results. Generally a poor agreement was obtained, mainly due to the difficulty in estimating the correct values for the distances between molecules or groups. However, a better agreement was obtained assuming that the chains were perpendicular to the surface.

2. Baszkin, A., and L. Ter-Minassian-Saraga, “Effect of temperature on the wettability of oxidized polyethylene films (letter),” Polymer, 15, 759-760, (1974).

417. Bataille, P., M. Dufourd, and S. Sapieha, “Graft polymerization of styrene onto cellulose by corona discharge,” Polymer Preprints, 32, 559-560, (Apr 1991).

418. Bataille, P., N. Belgacem, and S. Sapieha, “Properties of cellulose-polypropylene compounds subjected to corona treatment,” in ANTEC '93, 325-329, Society of Plastics Engineers, 1993.

1824. Baum, E.A., T.J. Lewis, and R. Toomer, “Further observations on the decay of surface potential of corona charged polyethylene films,” J. Physics D: Applied Physics, 10, 2525-2531, (Dec 1977).

For the authors' previous work see ibid., vol.10, p.487 (1977). Further measurements are reported on the decay of surface potential of negative corona charged polyethylene films and on the crossover effect reported earlier by Ieda and co-workers (1967). It is shown that when the duration of charging is short ( approximately 25 ms) the subsequent decay curves of surface potential are well-behaved and do not exhibit the crossover effect even though the initial surface fields are high. Experiments are also reported in which an air stream is directed along the surface of the films while corona charging. This also removes the crossover effect and is in agreement with results reported in which an air stream is directed along the surface of the films while corona charging. This also removes the crossover effect and is in agreement with results reported by Okumura (1976) for polystyrene-hexamethacrylate. It is concluded that excited molecules as well as photons produced in the corona discharge play an important role in inducing charge from surface states to enter the bulk of the polymer where they are much more mobile. This leads to rapid decay of surface potential at higher initial surface fields and the crossover effect is then observed.

1754. Bayer, I.S., C.M. Megaridis, J. Zhang, D. Gamota, and A. Biswas, “Analysis and surface energy estimation of various model polymeric surfaces using contact angle hysteresis,” J. Adhesion Science and Technology, 21, 1439-1467, (2007).

Wetting of hydrophobic polymer surfaces commonly employed in electronic coatings and their interaction with surfactant-laden liquids and aqueous polymer solutions are analyzed using a contact angle hysteresis (CAH) approach developed by Chibowski and co-workers. In addition, a number of low surface tension acrylic monomer liquids, as well as common probe liquids are used to estimate solid surface energy of the coatings in order to facilitate a thorough analysis of surfactant effects in adhesion. Extensive literature data on contact angle hysteresis of surfactant-laden liquids on polymeric surfaces are available and are used here to estimate solid surface energy for further understanding and comparisons with the present experimental data. In certain cases, adhesion tension plots are utilized to interpret wetting of surfaces by surfactant and polymer solutions. Wetting of an ultra-hydrophobic surface with surfactant-laden liquids is also analyzed using the contact angle hysteresis method. Finally, a detailed analysis of the effect of probe liquid molecular structure on contact angle hysteresis is given using the detailed experiments of Timmons and Zisman on a hydrophobic self-assembled monolayer (SAM) surface. Hydrophobic surfaces used in the present experiments include an acetal resin [poly(oxymethylene), POM] surface, and silane, siloxane and fluoro-acrylic coatings. Model surfaces relevant to the literature data include paraffin wax, poly(methyl methacrylate) and a nano-textured surface. Based on the results, it is suggested that for practical coating applications in which surfactant-laden and acrylic formulations are considered, a preliminary evaluation and analysis of solid surface energy can be made using surfactant-laden probe liquids to tailor and ascertain the quality of the final coating.

1755. Bayram, G., and G. Ozkoc, “Processing and characterization of multilayer films of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and surface-modified poly(tetrafluoroethylene),” J. Adhesion Science and Technology, 21, 883-898, (2007).

Multilayer films were prepared from poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films together with using an adhesion promoting layer (tie-layer) consisting of ethylene-methyl acrylate-glycidyl methacrylate (E-MA-GMA) terpolymer and low density polyethylene (LDPE) blend. Na/naphthalene treatment and subsequent acrylic acid grafting were applied on the surfaces of PTFE for chemical modification. FT-IR spectroscopy, XPS analysis and surface energy measurements were performed to characterize the modified PTFE films. The analyses showed defluorination and oxidation of PTFE surface, and supported the acrylic acid grafting. The surface energy of modified surfaces enhanced with respect to unmodified one, which promoted adhesion. The multilayers were subjected to T-peel tests to measure the adhesion strength between PET and modified PTFE. Peel strength between the films increased with increasing E-MA-GMA amount in the tie-layer. A proportional dependence of peel strength on Na/naphthalene treatment time was observed for multilayers containing acrylic acid grafted or ungrafted PTFE. From SEM analysis, it was observed that the texture of the PTFE surface after modifications became rougher when compared to untreated PTFE. The peeled surfaces were also analyzed by SEM. The micrographs evidence that the energy absorbing mechanism is the plastic deformation of the tie-layer, which is responsible for obtaining high peel strengths.

888. Beake, B.D., N.J. Brewer, and G.J. Leggett, “Scanning force microscopy of polyester:Surface structure and adhesive properties,” in Advances in Scanning Probe Microscopy of Polymers (Macromolecular Symposia 167), Tsukruk, V.V., and N.D. Spencer, eds., 101-116, Wiley-VCH, Jul 2001.

Scanning force microscopy has been used to characterize the surface structure and properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films. Two types of biaxially oriented film have been studied: one (Melinex O) is free of additives while the other (Mylar D) contains particulate additives at the surface. Contact mode characterization of both materials provide clear images of the polymer surface and (in the case of Mylar D) the additives. Phase images reveal substantial nanoscale morphological detail, including small features thought to be crystallites. To model the adhesive properties of polymer surfaces, mixed self-assembled monolayers containing polar and methyl terminated adsorbates were studied using chemical force microscopy. It was found that the strength of the tip-sample adhesion increased with the fraction of polar terminated adsorbates at the surface when a carboxylic acid terminated tip was employed, while the trend was reversed when a methyl terminated tip was used. Adhesion forces measured for plasma treated PET increased with treatment time, and linearly with the cosine of the water contact angle, illustrating the chemical selectivity of chemical force microscopy. However, friction forces were found to vary in a non-linear fashion, indicating that changes to the polymer surface mechanical properties following treatment were important.

2365. Beatty, T.R., and H. Vourlis, “Heat-treated, corona-treated polymer bodies and a process for producing them,” U.S. Patent 4029876, Jun 1977.

1538. Becker, K.H., M. Schmidt, A.A. Viggiano, R. Dressler, and S. Williams, “Air plasma chemistry,” in Non-Equilibrium Air Plasmas at Atmospheric Pressure, K.H. Becker, U. Kogelschatz, K.H. Schoenbach, and R.J. Barker, eds., 124-182, Institute of Physics, Nov 2004.

1536. Becker, K.H., U. Kogelschatz, K.H. Schoenbach, and R.J. Barker, eds., Non-Equilibrium Air Plasmas at Atmospheric Pressure, Institute of Physics, Nov 2004.

941. Beerbower, A., “Surface free energy: A new relationship to bulk energies,” J. Colloid and Interface Science, 35, 126-132, (Jan 1971).

By means of an equation containing two adjustable coefficients it is possible to relate the surface free energy to the energy of vaporization, using the Hansen parameters from London force energy, polar energy, and hydrogen-bonding energy. The technique is applicable to simple organic liquids, mixtures of simple liquids, and most liquid metals. Hydroxy compounds, acidic and basic organic liquids, certain hexagonal and irregular metals, and most fused halides require special versions of the basic equation.

1602. Behnisch, J., A. Hollander, and H. Zimmerman, “Factors influencing the hydrophobic recovery of oxygen-plasma-treated polyethylene,” Surface and Coatings Technology, 59, 356-358, (1993).

The hydrophobic recovery of oxygen-plasma-treated hydrophilic surfaces of polyethylene and polypropylene films was investigated by measuring the dependence of the contact angle with the water on the vacuum storage time. It could be shown that the rehydrophobation of the polyethylene surface may be retarded by the previous controlled surface cross-linking in a hydrogen plasma and/or by repeated plasma treatment. However, the loss in hydrophilicity cannot be suppressed for ever. After certain individual periods all treatments lead to the same final state. Nevertheless, in particular, controlled cross-linking seems to be a suitable way for improving the long-term stability of plasma-functionalized polymer surfaces for polymers not tending to chain scission during plasma treatment.

1195. Belgacem, M.N., A. Blayo, and A. Gandini, “Surface characterization of polysaccharides, lignins, printing ink pigments, and ink fillers by inverse gas chromatography,” J. Colloid and Interface Science, 182, 431-436, (Sep 1996).

1266. Belgacem, M.N., P. Bataille, and S. Sapieha, “Effect of corona modification on the mechanical properties of polypropylene/cellulose composites,” J. Applied Polymer Science, 53, 379-385, (Jul 1994).

The effect of various corona treatment conditions on the mechanical properties of cellulose fibers/polypropylene composites was studied. The cellulose fibers and polypropylene were modified using a wide range of corona treatment levels and concentrations of oxygen. The treatment level of the fibers was evaluated using the electrical conductance of their aqueous suspensions. The mechanical properties of composites obtained from different combinations of treated or untreated cellulose fibers and polypropylene were characterized by tensile stress–strain measurements; they improved substantially when either the cellulose fibers alone or both components were treated, although composites made from untreated cellulose fibers and treated polypropylene showed a relatively small improvement. The results obtained indicate that dispersive forces are mostly responsible for the enhanced adhesion. The relationship between the electrical conductance of the fibers, the mechanical properties, and the mechanism of improved adhesion is discussed. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

4. Bentley, D.J., “Taking the 'magic' and mystery out of treating,” Paper Film & Foil Converter, 70, 24, (Sep 1996).

5. Bentley, D.J., “How to measure treatment (or, is this trip necessary?),” Paper Film & Foil Converter, 70, 24, (Oct 1996).

6. Bentley, D.J., “A guide to the hows and whys of surface treatment,” Paper Film & Foil Converter, 71, 42-43, (May 1997).

16. Bentley, D.J., “Flame treatment remains a viable surface treating option,” Paper Film & Foil Converter, 71, 26, (Sep 1997).

17. Bentley, D.J., “Excessive treating can be too much of a good thing,” Paper Film & Foil Converter, 73, 22, (Dec 1999).

732. Bentley, D.J., and F.M. Singer, “Chemical primers to enhance adhesion and other properties,” in Extrusion Coating Manual, 4th Ed., Bezigian, T., ed., 99-108, TAPPI Press, Feb 1999.

1360. Bento, W.C.A., R.Y. Honda, M.E. Kayama, W.H. Schreiner, N.C. Cruz, E.C. Rangel, “Hydrophilization of PVC surfaces by argon plasma immersion ion implantation,” Plasmas and Polymers, 8, 1-11, (Mar 2003).

Commercial polyvinylchloride (PVC) sheets were treated by plasma immersion ion implantation, PIII. Samples were immersed in argon glow discharges and biased with 25 kV negative pulses. Exposure time to the bombardment plasma changed from 900 to 10,800 s. Through contact angle measurements, the effect of the exposure time on the PVC wettability was investigated. Independent of t, all samples presented contact angles, θ, equal to zero after the treatment. However, in some cases, surface hydrophilization was not stable, as revealed by the temporal evolution of θ. Samples bombarded for shorter periods recovered partially or totally the hydrophobic character while the one exposed for the longest time stayed highly hydrophilic. These modifications are ascribed to the Cl loss and O incorporation as shown by XPS measurements. Furthermore, the mobility of surface polar groups and the variation in the cross-linking degree can also affect the PVC wettability.


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