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1181. Bishop, C.A., “More details re plasma treatments,”, May 2006.

1180. Bishop, C.A., “Lifetime of flame treatment,”, May 2006.

1177. no author cited, “Member news: Empire Treater Rolls,” AIMCAL News, 31, (May 2006).

1176. no author cited, “Member news: Enercon Dyne-A-Mite,” AIMCAL News, 31, (May 2006).

2052. Ruddy, A.C., G.M. McNally, G. Nersisyan, W.G. Graham, and W.R. Murphy, “The effect of atmospheric glow discharge (APGD) treatment on polyetherimide, polybutyleneterephthalate, and polyamides,” J. Plastic Film and Sheeting, 22, 103-119, (Apr 2006).

Polyamide 6, polyamide 12, polybutyleneterephthalate, and polyetherimide films are plasma treated in an APGD unit using various applied voltages, gas flow rates, frequencies, and dwell times. The results show changes in the surface chemistry (FTIR); the degree of change in dynamic contact angle is found to be dependent on the polymer type, dwell time, and electrical characteristics of the plasma.

2025. Ferrero, F., and R. Bongiovanni, “Improving the surface properties of cellophane by air plasma treatment,” Surface and Coatings Technology, 200, 4770-4776, (Apr 2006).

Air plasma treatment at low pressure was applied to modify the surface of a cellulose film with the aim to improve its wettability, dyeability and adhesion properties. The contact angles of different polar liquids on the treated films show an exponential decay with treatment time at a given power; the power–time reciprocity is followed. The calculated surface tension values exponentially rise to the same maximum value with a decrease of the polar fraction. ATR-FTIR analyses suggest that a cellulose dehydration takes place rather than a surface oxidation. The plasma treatment improves also the cellophane dyeability with typical dyes for cellulose fibers: the results of dye uptake follow the same trend as the surface energy. The bond strength of lap joints of cellophane with LLDPE film shows a strong improvement of the adhesion depending on the duration and the power of treatment. The whole results are consistent with ablation effects like those observed with air corona treatment rather than oxygen plasma.

1670. Roth, J.R., and T.A. Bonds, “The application of a one atmosphere uniform glow discharge plasma (OAUGDP) to roll-to-roll surface energy enhancement and plasma chemical vapor deposition (PCVD) on films and fabrics,” in 15th Annual International TANDEC Nonwovens Conference Proceedings, TANDEC, Apr 2006.

1548. Manges, M., “Plasma treatment for medical device assembly,” Moll Medical, Seagrove Div., Apr 2006.

1208. Dillingham, R.G., and B.R. Oakley, “Surface energy and adhesion in composite-composite adhesive bonds,” J. Adhesion, 82, 407-426, (Apr 2006).

In the absence of weak boundary layers, surface energy can be an excellent indicator of the suitability of a fiber-reinforced composite surface for adhesive bonding. Mechanical surface treatments such as grit blasting are effective and commonly used to prepare composite surfaces, but the roughness introduced by these treatments makes quantification of the surface energy by contact angle methods difficult. This paper shows that the diameter of a small drop of a low-viscosity fluid chosen to have surface tension characteristics very similar to the adhesive can be used as an effective predictor of adhesive bond fracture energy. This technique could form the basis of a sensitive quality assurance tool for manufacturing.

1179. Sabreen, S.R., “Question: Corona discharge and flame surface pretreatment methods,” Plastics Decorating, 46, (Apr 2006).

1178. Sabreen, S.R., “Question: Surface wetting,” Plastics Decorating, 46, (Apr 2006).

1169. Liu, Y., and D. Lu, “Surfcae energy and wettability of plasma-treated polyacrylonitrile fibers,” Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing, 26, 119-126, (Apr 2006).

Polyacrylonitrile fibers were treated with a nitrogen glow-discharge plasma. The surfaces of untreated and treated fibers were examined with contact angle measurements, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Surface energy calculations of the fibers were carried out from contact angle measurements using the relationships developed by Fowkes. It is found that plasma treatment causes a reduction in water contact angle on the fiber surfaces. The dispersion component of surface energy changes slightly, while the polar component is increased significantly from 14.6 mN/m to 58.7 mN/m and the total surface energy increase is 139%. The increase of surface energy is mainly caused by the introduction of hydrophilic groups on the fiber surfaces after plasma treatment.

2970. Lai, J., B. Sunderland, J. Xue, et al, “Study on hydrophilicity of polymer surfaces improved by plasma treatment,” Applied Surface Science, 252, 3375-3379, (Mar 2006).

Surface properties of polycarbonate (PC), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) samples treated by microwave-induced argon plasma have been studied with contact angle measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanned electron microscopy (SEM). It is found that plasma treatment modified the surfaces both in composition and roughness. Modification of composition makes polymer surfaces tend to be highly hydrophilic, which mainly depended on the increase of ratio of oxygen-containing group as same as other papers reported. And this experiment further revealed that CDouble BondO bond is the key factor to the improvement of the hydrophilicity of polymer surfaces. Our SEM observation on PET shown that the roughness of the surface has also been improved in micron scale and it has influence on the surface hydrophilicity.

2525. Morsy, F.A., S.Y. Elsayad, A. Bakry, and M.A. Eid, “Surface properties and printability of polypropylene film treated by an air dielectric barrier discharge plasma,” Surface Coatings International, Part B: Coatings Transactions, 89, 49-55, (Mar 2006).

The effect of air dielectric barrier discharge plasma treatment on the chemical structure and morphology of polypropylene (PP)film was studied using UV-VIS (ultraviolet-visible),FT-IR,(Fourier transform infrared),SEM (scanning electron microscopy)and AFM (atomic force microscopy).Polypropylene samples were printed using solvent-based gravure ink.An evaluation of the print quality criteria of the treated PP films included measurement of print density and print gloss.SEM investigated the ink laydown on the modified PP film.The results showed that after a few seconds of plasma treatment,both the surface energy and the surface roughness of the treated PP film increased.There was an increase in the absorbance at the almost-visible range,and C=C and C=O bands were found after the air discharge plasma treatment.A short plasma treatment of 15 seconds was found to bring about a dramatic increase in the print density readings,but a decrease in print gloss.The time of the air discharge plasma treatment was found to have no effect on the print density or print gloss at a high ink film thickness.The results showed that air dielectric barrier discharge plasma treatment,for a few seconds,is effective in printing and is economical for industrial use (this will be studied in detail in future work).

2450. Kwon, O.-J., S.-W. Myung, C.-S. Lee, and H.-S. Choi, “Comparison of the surface characteristics of polypropylene films treated by Ar and mixed gas (Ar/O2) atmospheric pressure plasma,” J. Colloid and Interface Science, 295, 409-416, (Mar 2006).

In an attempt to modify the hydrophobic surface properties of polypropylene (PP) films, this study examined the optimum process parameters of atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) using Ar gas. Under optimized conditions, the effects of a mixed gas (Ar/O2) plasma treatment on the surface-free energy of a PP film were investigated as a function of the O2 content. The polar contribution of the surface-free energy of the PP film increased with increasing O2 content in the gas mixture. However, slightly more oxygen-containing polar functional groups such as CO, CO, and COO were introduced on the PP film surface by the Ar gas only rather than by the Ar/O2 gas mixture. In addition, AFM analysis showed that the Ar plasma treatment of the PP film produced the smoothest surface as a result of the relatively homogeneous etching process.

1907. Elsner, C., M. Lenk, L. Prager, and R. Mehnert, “Windowless argon excimer source for surface modification,” Applied Surface Science, 252, 3616-3624, (Mar 2006).

The article describes applications of a novel windowless argon excimer source for surface modification. Experimental results on etching of polymeric surfaces, degradation of organic surface residues, surface activation and modification of gas permeability and selectivity of polymeric membranes are presented. Moreover, radical formation from the excimer source and surface curing of liquid acrylates are examined. Typical treatment times are in the range of minutes for photolytic decomposition effects and seconds for UV curing effects. The surface modification effects induced by the argon excimer source were analysed by XPS, ESR, IR-spectroscopy, white light reflection spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, micro-hardness and permeation measurements.

1278. Mesic, B., M. Lestelius, and G. Engstrom, “Influence of corona treatment decay on print quality in water-borne flexographic printing of low-density polyethylene-coated paperboard,” Packaging Technology and Science, 19, 61-70, (Mar 2006).

The decrease in the corona treatment effect with time and its influence on the flexographic printability of low-density polyethylene-coated paperboard were studied. After corona treatment, sheets were stored in different ways. Some sheets were stored in a laboratory atmosphere, while others were protected from exposure to light, air, moisture and dust in polyethylene bags. The tendency for ink to spread on the surfaces was studied using contact angle measurements. Printability was evaluated as print density, dot gain, uncovered (white) and mottling. The results obtained show that the surface energy of the protected sheets decreased with time, but not as much and not as quickly as that of the unprotected sheets. In the case of the protected sheets, the percentage uncovered areas and mottling remained constant, but for the unprotected sheets they increased with increasing time after the corona treatment. No significant differences were seen in the other print quality measures. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

1173. Fontelera, J., “Stick with what works: Converters rely on their corona treaters for better ink and coating adhesion,” Converting, 24, 32-35, (Mar 2006).

1172. Inagaki, N., and K. Narushima, “Surface modification of aromatic polyester films for copper metallization,” in PMSE Preprints Volume 94, Spring 2006, Society of Plastics Engineers, Mar 2006.

1039. Butt, H.-J., K. Graf, and M. Kappl, eds., Physics and Chemistry of Interfaces, 2nd Ed., Wiley-VCH, Mar 2006.

2137. no author cited, “Reliable solutions - corona treatment from simple to sophisticated,” Flexo & Gravure International, 86-87, (Feb 2006).

1182. Bishop, C.A., “Surface treatment of polymers,”, Feb 2006.

1167. Schoff, C.K., “Coatings clinic: Surface tension and surface energy,” JCT CoatingsTech, 3, 72, (Feb 2006).

2561. Tendero, C., C. Tixier, P. Tristant, J. Desmaison, and P. Leprince, “Atmospheric pressure plasmas: A review,” Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy, 961, 2-30, (Jan 2006).

This article attempts to give an overview of atmospheric plasma sources and their applications. The aim is to introduce, in a first part, the main scientific background concerning plasmas as well as the different atmospheric plasma sources (description, working principle). The second part focuses on the various applications of the atmospheric plasma technologies, mainly in the field of surface treatments.Thus this paper is meant for a broad audience: non-plasma-specialized readers will find basic information for an introduction to plasmas whereas plasma spectroscopists who are familiar with analytical plasmas may be interested in the synthesis of the different applications of the atmospheric pressure plasma sources.

1187. Bhowmik, S., H.W. Bonin, V.T. Bui, and T.K. Chaki, “Physicochemical and adhesion characteristics of high-density polyethylene when treated in a low-pressure plasma under different electrodes,” J. Adhesion, 82, 1-18, (Jan 2006).

The present investigation studys the effects of different electrodes such as copper, nickel, and stainless steel under low-pressure plasma on physicochemical and adhesion characteristics of high-density polyethylene (HDPE). To estimate the extent of surface modification, the surface energies of the polymer surfaces exposed to low-pressure plasmas have been determined by measuring contact angles using two standard test liquids of known surface energies. It is observed that the surface energy and its polar component increase with increasing exposure time, attain a maximum, and then decrease. The increase in surface energy and its polar component is relatively more important when the polymer is exposed under a stainless-steel electrode followed by a nickel and then a copper electrode. The dispersion component of surface energy remains almost unaffected. The surfaces have also been studied by optical microscopy and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). It is observed that when the HDPE is exposed under these electrodes, single crystals of shish kebab structure form, and the extent of formation of crystals is higher under a stainless-steel electrode followed by nickel and then copper electrodes. Exposure of the polymer under low-pressure plasma has essentially incorporated oxygen functionalities on the polymer surface as detected by ESCA. Furthermore the ESCA studies strongly emphasize that higher incorporation of oxygen functionalities are obtained when the polymer is exposed to low-pressure plasma under a stainless-steel electrode followed by nickel and then copper electrodes. These oxygen functionalities have been transformed into various polar functional groups, which have been attributed to increases in the polar component of surface energy as well as the total surface energy of the polymer. Therefore, the maximum increase in surface energy results in stronger adhesion of the polymer when the polymer is exposed under a stainless-steel electrode rather than nickel and copper electrodes.

1184. Bishop, C.A., “Question: Re plasma treater,”, Jan 2006.

1166. Sharon, K., “Time to bump the bump treating?,” Package Printing, 53, 32-37, (Jan 2006).

3020. Zenkiewicz, M., “The analysis of principal conditions of van Oss-Chaudhury-Good's method in investigations of surface layers of polymeric materials,” Polimery, 51, 169-176, (2006).

The selected problems related to investigations of surface layers (WW) of solids were presented. The analysis of essential limits of van Oss - Chaunhury - Good's (vOCG) method, used for calculation of surface free energy (SEP) of polymeric materials, has been done. Some reasons of discrepancy between the results of calculations, obtained by various authors, were discussed in details. Namely, the need of use of algebraic analysis for selection of the set of three measured liquids, which are necessary in vOCG method, has been pointed. It makes possible to eliminate the sets of liquids being the reasons of bad conditioning of the sets of equations for SEP calculation. The effect of the proper selection of scale of components (acidic and basic ones) of SEP of water on the right evaluation of selected properties of the materials investigated was also presented (Table 1&2). General conclusions concerning the causes of controversy over van Oss - Chaunhury - Good's method were formulated.

2894. Marmur, A., “Soft contact: measurement and interpretation of contact angles,” Soft Matter, 2, 12-17, (2006).

The measurement and interpretation of contact angles deceptively appear to be simple. This paper attempts to summarize the pitfalls in the field, and how to avoid them. First, the fundamental underlying theory that is necessary in order to properly measure and interpret contact angles is discussed, emphasizing recent developments. Then, the practical implications of these theoretical aspects are presented. In addition, the discussion highlights the missing pieces of the picture that need to be completed through future research.

2866. Karbowiak, T., F. Debeaufort, and A. Voilley, “Importance of surface tension characterization for food, pharmaceutical and packaging products: A review,” Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 46, 391-407, (2006).

This article reviews the various theoretical approaches that have been developed for determination of the surface tension of solids, and the applications to food industrial products. The surface tension of a solid is a characteristic of surface properties and interfacial interactions such as adsorption, wetting or adhesion. The knowledge of surface tension is thus of great interest for every domain involved in understanding these mechanisms, which recover a lot of industrial investigations. Indeed, it is the case for the packaging industry, the food materials science, the biomedical applications and the pharmaceutical products, cleaning, adhesive technology, painting, coating and more generally all fields in relation with wettability of their systems. There is however no direct method for measurements of surface tension of solids, except the contact angle measurements combined with an appropriate theoretical approach are indirect methods for estimation of surface tension of solids. Moreover, since the publication by Young (1805) who developed the basis of the theory of contact angle some two hundred years ago, measurements and interpretations are still discussed in scientific literature, pointing out the need to better understand the fundamental mechanisms of solid-liquid interfacial interactions. Applications of surface tension characterization in the field of food materials science are detailed, especially for packaging and coating applications, which recover different actual orientations in order to improve process and quality.

2788. Rebros, M., P.D. Fleming, and M.K. Joyce, “UV-inks, substrates and wetting,” in 2006 Coating & Graphic Arts Conference, TAPPI Press, 2006.

Presently, it is desirable that one type of ink be suitable for printing on various substrates with different properties. Hence, the emphasis on new models and methods of printability prediction is necessary. The main objective of this work was to study and find correlation between physical properties of printing ink and substrate and finally how these properties can affect printability. For this purpose, contact angle measurement, surface tension measurement, rheology, and various methods for surface characterization of substrates were used.

2756. Lahti, J., “The role of surface properties in digital printing on extrusion coated paperboard,” in Proceedings of the 9th TAPPI Advanced Coating Fundamentals Symposium, TAPPI Press, 2006.

2735. Pappas, D.D., A.A. Bujanda, J.D. Demaree, J.K. Hirvonen, W. Kosik, R. Jensen, and S. McKnight, “Surface modification of polyamide fibers and films using atmospheric plasmas,” Surface and Coatings Technology, 201, 4384-4388, (2006).

In this work, polyamide (Nylon 6) fibers and films were treated under atmospheric pressure glow discharges (APGD) and the effects on the morphology and chemistry of the material were studied. The fibers were plasma treated with N 2 , C 2 H 2 in He for (0.6–9.6) s at a frequency of 90 kHz, leading to the functionalization of the surface through the addition of new reactive chemical groups such as –COOH and –OH and changing the energy, chemical composition and wettability of the surface.Surface characteristics were examined via contact angle measurements, XPS, and SEM. Wettability tests revealed the improvement of the hydrophilic character of the surface as the water contact angle measured after the plasma treatments significantly decreased. The corresponding changes of the total surface energy were evaluated with a dynamic contact angle analysis system revealing a significant increase due to the exposure that can be mainly attributed to the increase of its polar component. Preliminary XPS results show a significant increase in oxygen content with the addition of carboxylic and hydroxylic groups and a decrease in the carbon content of the surface. Most importantly, the plasma modified nylon fibers and films exhibit a stable wetting behavior, even for weeks after being treated, suggesting that it is a promising technique to minimize aging phenomena.

2625. Rudawska, A., and J. Kuczmaszewski, “Surface free energy of zinc coating after finishing treatment,” Materials Science - Poland, 24, (2006).

Protective properties of zinc coating increase with an additional coating such as: chromate, phosphate, paint and polymer coating. Besides, additional treatment of zinc coating serves decorative purposes as well. The paper presents the influence of additional coating of zinc coating on their adhesive properties which are especially helpful in processes where adhesion plays an essential role. These processes include among others: gluing, painting or varnishing. Adhesive properties are characterized by the value of surface free energy.

2582. Mesic, B., “Printability of polyethylene-coated paper and paperboard (Doctorate thesis),” Karlstad University, 2006.

2576. Cernakova, L., P. Stahel, C. Kovacik, K. Johansson, and M. Cernak, “Low-cost high-speed plasma treatment of paper surfaces,” in Proceedings of the 9th TAPPI Advanced Coating Fundamentals Seminar, 7-17, TAPPI Press, 2006.

2558. Sarra-Bournet, C., S. Turgeon, D. Mantovani, and G. Laroche, “A study of atmospheric pressure plasma discharges for surface functionalization of PTFE used in biomedical applications,” J. Physics D: Applied Physics, 39, 3461-3469, (2006).

Plasma polymer surface modification is widely used in the biomedical field to tailor the surface properties of materials to improve their biocompatibility. Most of these treatments are performed using low pressure plasma systems but recently, filamentary dielectric barrier discharge (FDBD) and atmospheric pressure glow discharge (APGD) have appeared as interesting alternatives. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the potential of surface modifications realized with FDBD and APGD in different atmospheres (N2+ H2 and N2+ NH3 mixtures) on poly(tetrafluoroethylene) to determine the relative influence of both the discharge regime and the gas nature on the surface transformations. From XPS analysis, it is shown that the discharge regime can have a significant effect on the surface transformation; FDBDs operating in H2/N2 lead to a high concentration of amino-groups with high specificity but also important damaging on the surface. Glow discharges in both H2/N2 and NH3/N2 lead to lower concentrations of amino-groups with lower specificity but lower surface damaging. Therefore, this simple surface treatment seems to be an effective, low cost method for the production of uniform surface modification with amino-groups that can subsequently be used to graft various chemical functionalities used for biomaterial compatibility.

2486. Bismarck, A., and J. Springer, “Wettability of materials: Plasma treatment effects,” in Encyclopedia of Surface and Colloid Science, Somasundaran, P., ed., 6592, CRC Press, 2006.

2185. Wolf, R.A., A.C. Sparavigna, and B. Montrucchio, “RFID label converting: Quality enhancement with atmospheric plasma treatments,” WSEAS Transactions on Systems, 5, 1988-1996, (2006).

RFID research and development requires technical expertise of ink and adhesive manufacturers, surface treatment and printing equipment manufacturers, package printers, and electronics firms. In this framework, a strong enhancement in production and quality can be obtained with surface substrate treatments. Here we will discuss the state-of-art in RFID production and the advantages that a plasma treatment of the substrate can give to RFID label printing.

2180. Sparavigna, A.C., and R.A. Wolf, “Energy curing substrates and inks with plasma aid,” Converter: Flessibili, Carta, Cartone, 59, 76-84, (2006).


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