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ACCU DYNE TEST ™ Bibliography

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2226. Gatenby, A., “CSC Scientific blog: Surface tension and interfacial tension,”, Nov 2008.

2163. Muller, M., and C. Oehr, “Surface tensions of polymers,”, Nov 2008.

1730. Klein, K., “Efficient corona treating saves time and energy,” Flexible Packaging, 10, 26, (Nov 2008).

2503. Bismarck, A., W. Brostow, R. Chiu, H.E.H. Lobland, and K.K.C. Ho, “Effects of surface plasma treatment on tribology of thermoplastic polymers,” Polymer Engineering & Science, 48, 1971-1976, (Oct 2008).

We have subjected polycarbonate (PC), low density polyethylene (LDPE), polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), and Hytrel® (HY, a thermoplastic elastomer) to atmospheric pressure oxygen plasma treatment for varying amounts of time. Effects of the treatment have been evaluated in terms of the water wetting angle, dynamic friction, scratch resistance, and sliding wear. Although PS, PP, and HY do not undergo significant tribological changes as a result of the interaction with plasma, PC and LDPE show more pronounced and useful effects, such as a lowering of dynamic friction in PC and wear reduction in LDPE. These results can be explained in terms of the changes in chemical structures and increase of hydrophilicity. Based on the effects of oxygen plasma treatment on PC and LDPE, these two polymers have been subjected to longer oxygen plasma treatments and to argon, nitrogen, and air plasmas. Resulting effects on friction and scratch resistance are compared to determine the mechanisms responsible for the various surface behaviors. Chemical surface modification—as represented by changing contact angles—contributes to the tribological responses. POLYM. ENG. SCI., 2008. © 2008 Society of Plastics Engineers

2171. Bishop, C.A., “A problem of poor adhesion,”, Oct 2008.

1740. Varella, R., “Business strategies: Surface treatments,” Plastics Decorating, 30-32, (Oct 2008).

1720. Bodine, J., “Overtreatment of PET: Fact or fiction,” in AIMCAL 2008 Fall Technical Conference, AIMCAL, Oct 2008.

2569. Bodine, J., “Over-treatment of PET - fact or fiction (part 1): A study of the following variables: watt density, corona dwell time, film selection, dyne level and water soak bond strength,” in 2008 PLACE Conference Proceedings, 794-801, TAPPI Press, Sep 2008.

2568. Lahti, J., M. Tuominen, and J. Kuusipalo, “The influence of atmospheric plasma treatment on digital print quality of extrusion coated paper,” in 2008 PLACE Conference Proceedings, 767-778, TAPPI Press, Sep 2008.

2567. Mandolini, P., “Polarized flame treatment for BOPP and CPP films and comparison with other treatment methods,” in 2008 PLACE Conference Proceedings, 710-714, TAPPI Press, Sep 2008.

2566. Cushing, G., “Balancing adhesion and slip properties in aqueous heat seal coatings,” in 2008 PLACE Conference Proceedings, 53-60, TAPPI Press, Sep 2008.

2273. Joshi, R., R.-D. Schulze, A. Meyer-Plath, and J.F. Friedrich, “Selective surface modification of poly(propylene) with OH and COOH groups using liquid-plasma systems,” Plasma Processes and Polymers, 5, 695-707, (Sep 2008).

Underwater plasma and glow discharge electrolysis are interesting new methods for polymer surface functionalization. The achievable content of O-containing functional groups exceeds that of oxygen glow discharge gas plasmas by a factor of two (up to ca. 56 O/100 C). The percentage of OH groups among all O-containing groups can reach 25 to 40%, whereas it is about 10% in the gas plasmas. Addition of hydrogen peroxide increases the fraction of OH groups to at most 70% (27 OH/100 C). The liquid plasma systems are also able to polymerize acrylic acid and deposit the polymer as very thin film on substrate surfaces or membranes, thereby retaining about 80% of all COOH functional groups (27 COOH/100 C).

2571. Schubert, G., “Adhesion to foil: More than just a one-sided story,” in 2008 PLACE Conference Proceedings, 1123-1152, TAPPI Press, Sep 2008.

2557. Quere, D., “Wetting and roughness,” Annual Review of Materials Research, 38, 71-99, (Aug 2008).

We discuss in this review how the roughness of a solid impacts its wettability. We see in particular that both the apparent contact angle and the contact angle hysteresis can be dramatically affected by the presence of roughness. Owing to the development of refined methods for setting very well-controlled micro- or nanotextures on a solid, these effects are being exploited to induce novel wetting properties, such as spontaneous filmification, superhydrophobicity, superoleophobicity, and interfacial slip, that could not be achieved without roughness.

2988. Pascual, M., R. Balart, L. Sanchez, O. Fenollar, and O. Calvo, “Study of the aging process of corona discharge plasma effects on low density polyethylene film surface,” J. Materials Science, 43, 4901-4908, (Jul 2008).

A study of the durability of corona discharge plasma effects on a polymer surface was investigated in this work. We used the corona discharge plasma technique to modify the wettability properties of low density polyethylene (LDPE) film and evaluated the influence of relative humidity and temperature on the aging process with three different storage conditions. The effects of the aging process on the plasma-treated surface of LDPE film were quantified by contact angle measurements, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results obtained with these techniques have allowed us to determine how the aging process promotes changes in the plasma-treated surface by decreasing its wettability and taking place a remarkable hydrophobic recovery process.

2901. Xiu, Y., L. Zhu, D.W. Hess, and C.P. Wong, “Relationship between work of adhesion and contact angle hysteresis on superhydrophobic surfaces,” J. Physical Chemistry, 112, 11403-11407, (Jul 2008).

Low contact angle hysteresis is an important characteristic of superhydrophobic surfaces for nonstick applications involving the exposure of these surfaces to water or dust particles. In this article, a relationship is derived between the surface work of adhesion and the dynamic contact angle hysteresis, and the resulting predictions are compared with experimental data. Superhydrophobic surfaces with different contact angles and contact angle hysteresis were prepared by generating silicon pillars with varying pillar size and pitch. Surfaces were subsequently treated with fluoroalkyl silanes to modify further the hydrophobicity. The three-phase contact line established for such systems was related to the Laplace pressure needed to maintain a stable superhydrophobic state.

2675. Argent, D., “Dyne levels part 2,”, Jul 2008.

2537. Dubreuil, M.F., and E.M. Bongaers, “Use of atmospheric pressure plasma technology for durable hydrophilicity enhancement of polymeric substrates,” Surface and Coatings Technology, 202, 5036-5042, (Jul 2008).

Parallel plates dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) at atmospheric pressure has been investigated to modify and functionalize the surface of different polymer substrates, e.g. polyolefins, poly(ethylene terephtalate), polyamide, in order to enhance their hydrophilic properties. Surface properties have been altered to meet the requirements of specific applications by introducing the appropriate functionalities through the use of either acetic acid or ethyl acetate. The coatings have been characterized through wettability measurements, labeling coupled with X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and IR spectroscopy.

2170. Bishop, C.A., “Lifetime of surface treatment,”, Jul 2008.

2169. Bishop, C.A., “Question re backsurface treatment & starry film,”, Jul 2008.

1708. Bishop, C.A., “Question re plasma treatment: Effect of distance of plasma target plates and substrate surface, and possibility of back treatment during plasma treatment,”, Jul 2008.

2674. Argent, D., “Dyne levels part 1,”, Jun 2008.

1922. Guild, F.J., M.D. Green, R. Stewart, and V. Goodship, “Air plasma pre-treatment for polypropylene automotive bumpers,” J. Adhesion, 84, 530-542, (Jun 2008).

The effect of forced air-plasma pre-treatment, Lectro-treat (TM), on polypropylene has been investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), angle-resolved XPS (AR-XPS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The pre-treatment process is found to induce both surface chemistry changes and topographical changes. The parameters of the pre-treatment process can be optimised from these observations. The Lectro-treat pre-treatment process has been used for adhesive bonding of a demonstrator component: a bumper assembly. The adhesively bonded bumpers performed successfully in standard automotive tests.

1713. Gilbertson, T.J., “Troubleshoot surface treating for print,” Converting, 26, 42-47, (Jun 2008).

1707. Bishop, C.A., “Coefficient of friction (COF) of plain & metallized films,”, Jun 2008.

805. Zenkiewicz, M., P. Rytlewski, J. Czuprynska, J. Polanski, T. Karasiewicz, and W. Engelhard, “Contact angle and surface free energy of electron-beam irradiated polymer composites,” Polimery, 53, 446-451, (Jun 2008).

The effects of the electron radiation dose and of compatibilizers on the contact angle and surface free energy (SFE) of the composites made of low-density polyethylene (PE-LD), high-density polyethylene (PE-HD), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) were studied. Use of the high-energy electron radiation with doses up to 300kGy and of compatibilizers was done to reach better mechanical and adhesion properties of the composites studied and, at the same time, to investigate the possibility of applying of this technique in the processes of polymeric materials recycling. The compatibilizers were the styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene elastomer grafted with maleic anhydride (SEBS-g-MA), added at the amounts of 5, 10 or 15 wt.%, and trimethylol propane trimethylacrylate (TMPTA), added at the amounts of 1, 2 or 3 wt.%. The effects, discussed in the present article, are: enhancement of wettability and increase in SFE of the composites studied. It was found that the contact angle steadily decreased and SFE of the composites increased with the rising dose of the electron radiation and that TMPTA intensified these tendencies.

2215. Madhusoodhanan, S., S. Sung, E. Delp, et al, “Dynamic surface tension of digital UV curable inks,” Ink World, 14, 0, (Mar 2008).

2086. Minzari, D., P. Moller, P. Kingshott, L.H. Christensen, and R. Ambat, “Surface oxide formation during corona discharge of AA 1050 aluminum surfaces,” Corrosion Science, 50, 1321-1330, (May 2008).

Atmospheric plasmas have traditionally been used as a non-chemical etching process for polymers, but the characteristics of these plasmas could very well be exploited for metals for purposes more than surface cleaning that is presently employed. This paper focuses on how the corona discharge process modifies aluminium AA 1050 surface, the oxide growth and resulting corrosion properties. The corona treatment is carried out in atmospheric air. Treated surfaces are characterized using XPS, SEM/EDS, and FIB-FESEM and results suggest that an oxide layer is grown, consisting of mixture of oxide and hydroxide. The thickness of the oxide layer extends to 150–300 nm after prolonged treatment. Potentiodynamic polarization experiments show that the corona treatment reduces anodic reactivity of the surface significantly and a moderate reduction of the cathodic reactivity.

904. Pykonen, M., H. Sundqvist, O.-V. Kaukoniemi, M. Tuominen, J. Lahti, P. Fardim, and M. Toivakka, “Ageing effects in atmospheric plasma activation of paper substrates,” Surface and Coatings Technology, 202, 3777-3786, (May 2008).

This work concerns the ageing effect of the atmospheric plasma and corona treatments when used to treat paper substrates. Pigment coated and surface sized papers were modified using two types of atmospheric plasma equipment; one at the pilot scale and one at the laboratory scale. In addition, the plasma treatments were compared to conventional corona treatment. Surface energy was estimated by contact angle measurements and surface chemistry by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) as a function of the time during three months. The treatments increased surface energy and oxidation level of surface for both papers. The ageing effect could be detected only in the surface energy, whereas the oxidation level remained stable during the twelve weeks. The decay in surface energy was faster during the first weeks of storage and subsequently leveled off leading to a permanent change. The permanent change was explained as a contribution of oxygen containing polar molecular groups, which were detected by XPS. The ageing effect was suggested to originate from already existing polar molecular groups, which have rotated on the surface by plasma-related process and then rotate back into the material in time. A part of the decay was also explained by the plasma cleaning model, in which the ageing effect occurred through re-contamination. Paper is a multicomponent system, where the constituents that have the lowest surface energy were suggested to migrate to paper surfaces.

2533. Vesel, A., M. Mozetic, and A. Zalar, “XPS characterization of PTFE after treatment with RF oxygen and nitrogen plasma,” Surface and Interface Analysis, 40, 661-663, (Apr 2008).

A study on surface modification of extended PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) foil after treatment in oxygen and nitrogen plasma is presented. PTFE was exposed to a weakly ionized, highly dissociated RF plasma with a high density of neutral atoms. The gas pressure was 75 Pa and the discharge power was 200 W. The appearance of the functional groups on the sample surface was determined by using high-resolution XPS. The results showed that oxygen plasma treatment did not cause any noticeable changes in the surface composition, while after nitrogen plasma treatment new functional groups were detected on the surface. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

1711. Bishop, C.A., “Question re static: Will the presence of static on the face of a material affect its surface energy?,”, Apr 2008.

1710. Bishop, C.A., “Problem with low bond strength of plasma treated metallized film,”, Apr 2008.

1709. Bishop, C.A., “Delamination problem in adhesive-laminated 3-ply structures of reverse-printed PET:metPET:LLDPE sealant web,”, Apr 2008.

1704. Song, S., and F. Placido, “Effect on adhesion of gas release from polymer surfaces,” Presented at 51st Annual Technical Conference, Society of Vacuum Coaters, Apr 2008.

2269. Deshmukh, R.R., and A.R. Shetty, “Comparison of surface energies using various approaches and their suitability,” J. Applied Polymer Science, 107, 3707-3717, (Mar 2008).

The surface chemistry and surface energies of materials are important to performance of many products and processes—sometimes in as yet unrecognized ways. This article has been written for the researchers who wish to calculate solid surface energy (SE) from contact angle data. In this article, we describe various methods of calculations and their assumptions. The theoretical and experimental approaches for understanding the solid surface free energy using various methods are discussed in this article. Researchers concerned with many fields such as printing, dyeing, coating, adhesion, pharmaceuticals, composite materials, textiles, polymers, and ceramics should have interest in this topic. SE calculated by various methods for polyethylene surface treated in air plasma is discussed. Using contact angle data, the values of surface roughness using Wenzels equation, have been obtained and correlated to surface roughness calculated from AFM data.
© 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 2008

1712. Bishop, C.A., “Problem re ink adhesion to metallized film,”, Mar 2008.

1702. Berthier, J., “Theory of wetting,” in Microdrops and Digital Microfluidics, 7-74, William Andrew Inc., Mar 2008.

1701. Kondyurin, A., and M. Bilek, “Wetting,” in Ion Beam Treatment of Polymers: Application Aspects from Medicine to Space, 147-160, Elsevier, Mar 2008.

1700. Kondyurin, A., and M. Bilek, “Interactions of ion beam with polymer: Chemical picture,” in Ion Beam Treatment of Polymers: Application Aspects from Medicine to Space, 29-74, Elsevier, Mar 2008.

1699. Kondyurin, A., and M. Bilek, “Interactions of ion beam with polymer: Physical picture,” in Ion Beam Treatment of Polymers: Application Aspects from Medicine to Space, 1-10, Elsevier, Mar 2008.


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