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1844. Kan, C.W., and C.W.M. Yuen, “Influence of plasma treatment on the wettability and dryability of synthetic fibres,” PMSE Preprints, 100, 79-80, (Mar 2009).

Polyester and polyamide fabrics were treated with plasma under atmospheric pressure for different durations, 3, 5 and 7 s. The wettability of polyester and polyamide fabrics, measured in terms of contact angle and longitudinal wicking, was improved after plasma treatment. The oxygen content of the fabrics was increased indicating that hydrophilic groups had been introduced into the fabric leading to the improved wettability. However, there was no obvious improvement in dryability because bulk properties of the fibres did not change. Moreover, with the help of plasma treatment, water repellency of the fabrics was greatly improved when water repellency finishing agent was added.

1843. Zhang, C., B. Li, F. Yan, L. Wu, and O. Zhang, “Study of surface hydrophilicity and mechanical properties of polypropylene modified by peregal,” PMSE Preprints, 100, 461-462, (Mar 2009).

2272. Pichal, J., J. Hladik, and P. Spatenka, “Atmospheric-air plasma surface modification of polyethylene powder,” Plasma Processes and Polymers, 6, 148-153, (Feb 2009).

The surface modification of polyethylene powder using a plasma reactor based on a dielectric barrier discharge in air at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature is investigated. The process is inexpensive, and the necessity of any vacuum equipment and technical gases is alleviated. The efficiency of the modification process was successfully demonstrated by ESCA measurements that proved formation of new functional groups at the modified powder surface. The modification effect was also evaluated by means of dynamic capillarity rising measurements. Powder capillarity tests proved significant powder capillarity changes. The reduction of the modification effect was also limited (max. reduction of about 20% during 1 100 d after the modification date).

2249. Tag, C.M., M. Pykonen, J.B. Rosenhelm, and K. Backfolk, “Wettability of model fountain solutions: The influence on topo-chemical and -physical properties of offset paper,” J. Colloid and Interface Science, 330, 428-436, (Feb 2009).

The surface chemical and physical character of offset paper was studied before and after application of model fountain solutions based on isopropyl alcohol and an alcohol-free surfactant solution. The paper surface features were characterised with atomic force microscopy and the surface energies were determined by contact angle measurements. Changes in the surface chemical properties induced by the fountain solutions were investigated with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Coated papers wetted with the surfactant solution revealed a slight increase in the root mean square roughness, but the isopropyl alcohol solution led to no observable changes. The change in sub-micro roughness is ascribed not only to substrate swelling or migration of coating constituents but also to the presence of surfactant on the surface. A change in the surface energy and particularly the polar contribution was observed after application of the surfactant solution. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed an increase in the oxygen-to-carbon ratio, which confirms the presence of surfactant on the surface. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy showed that the isopropyl alcohol solution did not change the elemental composition of the surface whereas the surfactant solution clearly did so. The distribution of surfactant on the surface was confirmed by mapping the characteristic fragments of the molecule.

1822. Hasselbacher, N., “Prestige treatment,” Converting, 27, 36-39, (Feb 2009).

2978. Pandiyaraj, K.N., V. Selvarajan, R.R. Deshmukh, and C. Gao, “Modification of surface properties of polypropylene (PP) film using DC glow discharge air plasma,” Applied Surface Science, 255, 3965-3971, (Jan 2009).

The industrial use of polypropylene (PP) films is limited because of undesirable properties such as poor adhesion and printability. In the present study, a DC glow discharge plasma has been used to improve the surface properties of PP films and make it useful for technical applications. The change in hydrophilicity of modified PP film surface was investigated by contact angle (CA) and surface energy measurements as a function of exposure time. In addition, plasma-treated PP films have been subjected to an ageing process to determine the durability of the plasma treatment. Changes in morphological and chemical composition of PP films were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The improvement in adhesion was studied by measuring T-peel and lap shear strength. The results show that the surface hydrophilicity has been improved due to the increase in the roughness and the introduction of oxygen-containing polar groups. The AFM observation on PP film shows that the roughness of the surface increased due to plasma treatment. Analysis of chemical binding states and surface chemical composition by XPS showed an increase in the formation of polar functional groups and the concentration of oxygen content on the plasma-processed PP film surfaces. T-peel and lap shear test for adhesion strength measurement showed that the adhesion strength of the plasma-modified PP films increased compared with untreated films surface.

2521. Lin, T.-K., S.-J. Wu, C.-K. Peng, and C.-H. Yeh, “Surface modification of polytetrafluoroethylene films by plasma pretreatment and graft copolymerization to improve their adhesion to bismaleimide,” Polymer International, 58, 46-53, (Jan 2009).

BACKGROUND: Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is utilized in many engineering applications, but its poor wettability and adhesion properties with other materials have limited its use. The study reported was aimed at achieving surface modification of PTFE films by radiofrequency NH3 and N2 plasma treatment, followed by graft copolymerization, in order to improve the interfacial adhesion of PTFE and bismaleimide.

RESULTS: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results showed that a short-time plasma treatment had a distinct defluorination effect and led to nitrogen functional group formation. The nitrogen chemical bonding form was different for NH3 and N2 plasma treatments. Under the same experimental conditions, the NH3 plasma exhibited a better etching effect than did the N2 plasma. Contact angle measurement showed an improvement in both surface energy and wettabliity by short-time plasma treatment. The concentration of the surface-grafted bismaleimide on PTFE increased after the plasma pretreatment. The lap shear strength between PTFE and bismaleimide increased significantly after surface modification.

CONCLUSION: This study found that plasma treatment caused changes in surface chemistry, thus leading to an increase of the wettability of PTFE surfaces. Hence, the adhesion properties of PTFE with bismaleimide were significantly improved. Copyright © 2008 Society of Chemical Industry

2244. Nase, M., B. Langer, and W. Grellmann, “Influence of processing conditions on the peel behavior of polyethylene/polybutene-1 peel systems,” J. Plastic Film and Sheeting, 25, 61-80, (Jan 2009).

The peel characteristics of sealed low-density polyethylene/isotactic polybutene-1 (PE-LD/iPB-1) films, with different contents of iPB-1 up to 20 m.-% (mass percentage), were evaluated and simulated in dependence on the iPB-1 content, and in dependence on the peel rate. Sealing involves close contact and localized melting of two films for a few seconds. The required force, to separate the local adhered films, is the peel force, which is influenced, among others, by the content of iPB-1. The peel force decreases exponentially with increasing iPB-1 content. Transmission electron microscopy studies reveal a favorable dispersion of the iPB-1 particles within the seal area, for iPB-1 concentrations ≥6 m.-%. Here, the iPB-1 particles form continuous belt-like structures, which lead to a stable and reproducible peel process. The investigation of the peel rate-dependency on the peel characteristics is of important interest for practical applications. The peel force increases with increasing peel rate by an exponential law. A numerical simulation of the present material system proves to be useful to comprehend the peel process, and to understand the peel behavior in further detail. Peel tests of different peel samples were simulated, using a two-dimensional finite element model, including cohesive zone elements. The established finite element model of the peel process was used to simulate the influence of the modulus of elasticity on the peel behavior. The peel force is independent of the modulus of elasticity, however, the peel initiation value increases with increasing modulus of elasticity. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2009

2124. Smith, R.E., “Surface tension components and molecular weights of selected liquids,”, Jan 2009.

2123. Smith, R.E., “Viscosity, surface tension, specific density, and molecular weight of selected liquids,”, Jan 2009.

2122. Smith, R.E., “Surface tension, Hansen Solubility Parameters, molar volume, enthalpy of evaporation, and molecular weight of selected liquids,”, Jan 2009.

1771. Wolf, R.A., “How to determine optimal treatment levels for plastic films,” Flexo, 34, 34-36, (Jan 2009).

2903. Bongiovanni, R., A. DiGianni, and A. Priola, “Adhesion of fluorinated UV-curable coatings to functionalized polyethylene,” in Polymer Surface Modification: Relevance to Adhesion, Vol. 5, K.L. Mittal, ed., CRC Press, 2009.

In this work we modified the surface of polyethylene in order to coat it with highly-fluorinated UV-curable coatings and assure good adhesion between the two polymers. Different methods were investigated, and a successful treatment was the grafting of a monomer containing a group able to dissociate under UV light. The surface modification was assessed by XPS, ATR–FT-IR and AFM analyses. The modified substrate was easily coated with the photocurable fluorinated formulation, and the highly hydrophobic and oleophobic layer formed after irradiation adhered well to the polyethylene substrate.

2293. Tanaka, T., K. Vutova, E. Koleva, G. Mladenov, and T. Takagi, “Surface modification of plastic films by charged particles,” in Polymer Surface Modification: Relevance to Adhesion, Vol. 5, K.L. Mittal, ed., CRC Press, 2009.

The surface of polymer materials has been successfully modified by ion implantation. The plasma-source ion implantation (PSII) technique was applied as a surface modification method for poly (ethylene terephthalate)(PET) films. A mass-separated ion accelerator was used for low energy implantation in poly (vinyl chloride)(PVC) and polyamide (PA). The surface electrical conductivity of these polymers was measured. Using our computer program TRIM-MV for simulation of the accelerated ion transport through the polymers, the penetration depths of bombarding ions in the studied plastic films were calculated. The experimentally observed changes in physical properties cannot be explained by the calculated ion ranges and implanted particle energy distributions. For the experimental conditions used, the chemical structure modification of the polymer surface, polymer material erosion, and gas creation and its diffusion through the surface layer are more important reasons for the modified material characteristics. The kind of bombarding ions and the composition of polymer material are found to be of prime importance.

3038. Bohra, H., P. Fleming, and M. Joyce, “Surfaces energy of coated paper: effect of calendering consitions and relative humidity,” in Proceedings of the Paper Con '09 Conference, 1987-2004, TAPPI Press, 2009.

Surface energy (1) of a substrate plays a vital role in determination of surface characteristics in terms of interactions with liquid phases, such as inks. The polar and dispersive components of surface energy are employed so as to estimate the interaction of a substrate with polar and non-polar liquids. This study involves the determination of dependence of surface energy of coated paper on various calendering conditions and effect of post-calendering environmental conditions, such as relative humidity, on surface energy, which is of high importance in estimation of ink-substrate interactions and so as to interpret various print attributes. A laboratory-scale cylindrical coater has been used to coat paper sheets with different coating formulations and a laboratory-scale soft-nip calender has been used with different pressure and temperature combinations, so as to generate a series of coated paper samples, which were further conditioned at different environmental conditions by varying the levels of relative humidity. The surface energy determinations were made on these samples by measuring the contact angle of liquids with different polar and dispersive natures.

3030. Marmur, A., “A guide to the equilibrium contact angles maze,” in Contact Angle, Wettability and Adhesion, Vol. 6, K.L. Mittal, ed., 3-18, VSP, 2009.

Understanding, measuring, and interpreting equilibrium contact angles appear to be simple, but may actually be quite confusing. This paper is an attempt at a guide to the perplexed. First, a comprehensive, clearly defined terminology is suggested. Then, the theory of equilibrium contact angles on smooth, rough, or chemically heterogeneous surfaces is briefly discussed. Finally, the practical implications of the theory to contact angle measurement and interpretation are indicated and explained.

2623. no author cited, “ISO 15989: Plastics - film and sheeting - measurement of water-contact angle of corona-treated films,” ISO, 2009.

2573. Mix, R., H. Yin, J.F. Friedrich, and A. Rau, “Polypropylene-aluminum adhesion by aerosol based DBD treatment of foils,” in Proceedings of the Third Asian Conference on Adhesion, 28-31, Society for Adhesion and Adhesives, 2009.

2528. Sarra-Bournet, C., G. Ayotte, S. Turgeon, F. Massines, and G. Laroche, “Effects of chemical composition and the addition of H2 in a N2 atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge on polymer surface functionalization,” Langmuir, 25, 9432-9440, (2009).

We examined the effect of hydrogen content in various polymers in a N2/H2 discharge for surface amine functionalization. Three polymers (polyethylene (PE), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), and poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE)) containing various amounts of hydrogen and fluorine were treated with an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). While surface modification was observed on the PE and the PVDF in a pure N2 discharge, adding H2 in a N2 discharge was necessary to observe the fluorine etching on the surface of the PVDF and PTFE polymers. The presence of a slight amount of hydrogen in the gas mixture was also a prerequisite to the formation of amino groups on the surface of all three polymers (max NH2/C ∼ 5%). Aging revealed that the modified polymer surfaces treated in a N2−H2 discharge were less prone to hydrophobic recovery than were surfaces treated in pure N2, due primarily to the presence of a higher density of polar groups on the surfaces. We demonstrated that H atoms in the discharge are necessary for the surface amine functionalization of polymers in a N2 atmospheric pressure DBD, regardless of polymer chemical composition. It is therefore possible to control the plasma functionalization process and to optimize the concentration and specificity of NH2 grafted onto polymer surfaces by varying the H2 concentration in a N2 atmospheric pressure DBD.

2510. Desmet, T., R. Morent, N. De Geyter, C. Leys, E. Schacht, and P. Dubreuil, “Nonthermal plasma technology as a versatile strategy for polymeric biomaterials surface modification: A review,” Biomacromolecules, 10, 2351-2378, (2009).

In modern technology, there is a constant need to solve very complex problems and to fine-tune existing solutions. This is definitely the case in modern medicine with emerging fields such as regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. The problems, which are studied in these fields, set very high demands on the applied materials. In most cases, it is impossible to find a single material that meets all demands such as biocompatibility, mechanical strength, biodegradability (if required), and promotion of cell-adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. A common strategy to circumvent this problem is the application of composite materials, which combine the properties of the different constituents. Another possible strategy is to selectively modify the surface of a material using different modification techniques. In the past decade, the use of nonthermal plasmas for selective surface modification has been a rapidly growing research field. This will be the highlight of this review. In a first part of this paper, a general introduction in the field of surface engineering will be given. Thereafter, we will focus on plasma-based strategies for surface modification. The purpose of the present review is twofold. First, we wish to provide a tutorial-type review that allows a fast introduction for researchers into the field. Second, we aim to give a comprehensive overview of recent work on surface modification of polymeric biomaterials, with a focus on plasma-based strategies. Some recent trends will be exemplified. On the basis of this literature study, we will conclude with some future trends for research.

2423. Gomathi, N., and S. Neogi, “Surface modification of polypropylene using argon plasma: Statistical optimization of the process variables,” Applied Surface Science, 255, 7590-7600, (2009).

Low pressure plasma treatment using radiofrequency (rf) discharge of argon gas was employed to improve the hydrophilicity of polypropylene. The effects of argon plasma on the wettability, surface chemistry and surface morphology of polypropylene were studied using static contact angle measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Increase in surface energy of polypropylene was observed as a result of argon plasma treatment. SEM and AFM images revealed the increased surface roughness. A set of identified process variables (rf power, pressure, argon flow rate and time) were used in this study and were optimized using central composite design (CCD) of response surface methodology (RSM). A statistical model was developed to represent the surface energy in terms of the process variables mentioned above. Accuracy of the model was verified and found to be high.

2422. Pawde, S.M., and K. Deshmukh, “Surface characterization of air plasma treated poly vinylidene fluoride and poly methyl methacrylate films,” Polymer Engineering and Science, 49, 808-818, (2009).

In this investigation, the surface modification of poly vinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) film induced by air plasma has been investigated using contact angle measurement, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Plasma treatment affects the polymer surfaces to an extent of several hundreds to several thousand angstroms deep, and the bulk properties of the polymer substrate are never modified because of its low penetration range. Plasma surface treatment also offers the advantage of greater chemical flexibility. The plasma exposure leads to weight loss and changes in the chemical composition of the polymer film surfaces. The contact angle of water shows decrease in surface wettability of PVDF and PMMA as the treatment time increases. The improvement in adhesion was studied by measuring T-peel strength. In addition, printability of plasma treated PVDF and PMMA was studied by cross test method. It was found that printability increases considerably for plasma treatment of short duration. Surface energy and surface roughness can be directly correlated to the improvement in the aforementioned surface related properties. POLYM. ENG. SCI., 2009. © 2009 Society of Plastics Engineers

2288. Gao, L., and T.J. McCarthy, “Wetting 101,” Langmuir, 25, 14105-14115, (2009).

We review our 2006−2009 publications on wetting and superhydrophobicity in a manner designed to serve as a useful primer for those who would like to use the concepts of this field. We demonstrate that the 1D (three-phase, solid/liquid/vapor) contact line perspective is simpler, more intuitive, more useful, and more consistent with facts than the disproved but widely held-to-be-correct 2D view. We give an explanation of what we believe to be the reason that the existing theoretical understanding is wrong and argue that the teaching of surface science over the last century has led generations of students and scientists to a misunderstanding of the wetting of solids by liquids. We review our analyses of the phenomena of contact angle hysteresis, the lotus effect, and perfect hydrophobicity and suggest that needlessly complex theoretical understandings, incorrect models, and ill-defined terminology are not useful and can be destructive.

2287. Gao, L., and T.J. McCarthy, “An attempt to correct the faulty intuition perpetuated by the Wenzel and Cassie 'laws',” Langmuir, 25, 7249-7255, (2009).

We respond to a recent report in this journal that criticizes our experiments, which disproved the Wenzel and Cassie theories. The criticism is that we measured contact angles “with drops that were too small, ignoring the indications of existing theoretical understanding.” We take a step back to give an explanation of what we believe to be the reason that the “existing theoretical understanding” is wrong. We explain that the teaching of surface science has led generations of students and scientists to a misunderstanding of the wetting of solids by liquids. This continues as evidenced by this recent criticism and numerous recent papers. We describe several demonstrations that were designed to help teachers, students, and scientists overcome the widespread learning disability that is rooted in their faulty intuition and to help them regard wetting from the perspective of lines and not areas.

2176. Wolf, R.A., and A.C. Sparavigna, “Measuring surface features II: Electrons for chemical analysis,” Converter: Flessibili, Carta, Cartone, 78, 100-108, (2009).

2175. Wolf, R.A., and A.C. Sparavigna, “Measuring surface features I: Surface tension analysis,” Converter: Flessibili, Carta, Cartone, 77, 60-68, (2009).

2166. Bialopiotrowicz, T., “Influence of erroneous data on the results of calculations from acid-base surface free energy theories, III: Solution of a three-equation set in the case of homoscedastic error,” J. Adhesion Science and Technology, 23, 799-813, (2009).

The van Oss–Chaudhury–Good theory (vOCGT) was checked for a large artificial set of work of adhesion input data calculated for 15 solids and 300 liquids. Numerical values of LW component and acid (A) and base (B) parameters were assigned to 15 solids. These 15 solids were grouped in 5 sets of 3 solids in each. Also numerical values of LW component and A and B parameters were assigned to 300 liquids (three sets of 100 liquids in each). Data for these solids and liquids were especially selected to represent real types of materials encountered in practice. For all 15 solids and 300 liquids the work of adhesion values were calculated and these values were assumed to be error-free. Next, new values of the work of adhesion were obtained by adding a random homoscedastic error (A vector of random variables is homoscedastic if it has the same finite variance.) of the normal distribution (Also called the Gaussian distribution — it is continuous probability distribution defined by two parameters: the mean and variance (standard deviation squared, σ2).), belonging to 8 distributions of a mean value equal to the error-free work of adhesion value and standard deviations of 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 7, 10, 15 and 20 mJ/m2. The LW components and A and B parameters for these solids were back-calculated for each error level. Two different methods for the solution of a 3-equation set were used and they gave practically the same results irrespective of the error level and liquids and solids used. It was found that there existed a linear correlation between the RMSE (root mean square error) of the solution and the standard deviation of the work of adhesion data. This correlation was highly significant (with a correlation coefficient higher than 0.999) and was true separately for LW component, A and B parameters as well as for the total solution vector (i.e., combinedly for the LW component, A and B parameters). The RMSE values of the total solution vector (having as elements values of the LW component, A and B parameters) as well as separately for LW component and A and B parameters were correlated with the condition number of a given 3-equation set. A very good correlation was found only for the total solution, much worse for A or B parameters, and practically there was a lack of correlation for the LW component. Based on the correlation between the RMSE and the standard deviation of the work of adhesion it was possible to determine what should have been the maximal standard deviation of the work of adhesion if the calculated value of a given LW component or A or B parameter did not differ by more than 1 mJ/m2 from an error-free (true) value.

3034. Bahners, T., G. Hoffmann, J. Nagel, E. Schollmeyer, and A. Voigt, “The effect of plasma pre-treatment on the quality of flock coatings on polymer substrates,” in Contact Angle, Wettability and Adhesion, Vol. 6, K.L. Mittal, ed., 325-340, VSP, 2009.

Flock coating is a widely used process to create a textile-like texture on substrates of various shapes and materials. In the process, flock fibers—short fibers typically 1–3 mm long—are oriented and accelerated towards the substrate by means of an electric field. Impacting fibers are stuck to the substrate surface by an appropriate adhesive. Primary quality criteria are adhesion of the flock fibers to the adhesive, and also the so-called flock density, ie number of fibers per unit area, and evenness. The influential physical and chemical factors refer to interfacial adhesion, but also charging effects by the impacting fibers. The system presently under investigation is based on aliphatic polyamides as material for a molded car component, hot-melt adhesive, and flock fibers. Experiments reported here refer to the application of an air plasma pretreatment of the polyamide (PA) substrate, mainly in order to increase the adhesion of the hot-melt layer. It was found that the plasma treatment affects the polar energy of the PA surface with a related increase in wettability due to a reduction of C–C and C–H bonds and an increase of carboxylic groups. Surface carbonization occurred at higher plasma doses. The effect on hot-melt adhesion was rather small, however two types of failures were observed in these experiments, either due to insufficient adhesion of the hot-melt or due to a break of one of the PA plates with the bond still intact. The characterization of flock coatings on these samples showed no effect on flock fiber adhesion in pull-out as well as on abrasion resistance, but an increased flock density was observed. This is assumed to be due to enhanced dissipation of charges by the conductive water layer adsorbed on the substrate surface.

3033. Chibowski, E., and K. Terpilowski, “Comparison of apparent surface free energy of some solids determined by different approaches,” in Contact Angle, Wettability and Adhesion, Vol. 6, K.L. Mittal, ed., 283-300, VSP, 2009.

Four different approaches to determination of solid surface free energy (van Osset al.’s (LWAB), Owens and Wendt’s (O–W), Chibowski’s contact angle hysteresis (CAH) and Neumann’s equation of state (EQS)) were examined on glass, silicon, mica and poly (methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) surfaces via measurements of advancing and receding contact angles. Sessile drop and tilted plate methods were employed to measure the contact angles of probe liquids water, formamide and diiodomethane. The results obtained show that on a given solid the advancing contact angle is slightly larger and the receding one smaller if measured by tilted plate method. Hence, the resulting hysteresis is larger than that from the contact angles measured by sessile drop. The calculated (apparent) surface free energy is the greatest if determined from O–W equation. Unexpectedly, EQS fails for weakly polar polymer PMMA surface, giving significantly lower value of the calculated energy. In rest of the tested systems LWAB, CAH and EQS approaches give comparable results for the apparent surface free energy of the tested solids. A hypothesis is put forward that using a probe liquid only apparent surface free energy of a solid can be determined because the strength of interactions originating from the solid surface depends on the strength of interactions coming from the probe liquid surface.

3032. Salapare III, H.S., G.Q. Blantocas, .R. Noguera, and H. J. Ramos, “The porosity and wettability properties of hydrogen ion treated poly(tetrafluoroethylene),” in Contact Angle, Wettability and Adhesion, Vol.6, K.L. Mittal, ed., 207-218, VSP, 2009.

The porosity and wettability properties of hydrogen ion treated poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) materials are related using contact angle, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ellipsometry techniques. PTFE samples are irradiated using a low-energy hydrogen ion shower (LEHIS) produced by a Gas Discharge Ion Source (GDIS). The plasma discharge current (Id) is varied at intervals of 1 mA. Results show that treatment using lower Id improved the hydrophobic property of the PTFE material with water contact angle increasing from 102◦ to 119◦. It also becomes less porous as indicated by the increase in the index of refraction, decrease in optical transmittance, and increased fissures and striations in the SEM images. Opposite effects are observed for higher Id.

3031. Extrand, C.W., “Work of wetting associated with spreading of sessile drops,” in Contact Angle, Wettability and Adhesion, Vol. 6, K.L. Mittal, ed., 81-94, VSP, 2009.

In this theoretical study, the work done on a sessile drop during spreading was estimated. It was found that the energy required to stretch the contact line is much greater than the energy needed to stretch the air–liquid interfacial area. The model shows that wetting energies are relatively small for large contact angles, but increase dramatically as contact angles tend towards zero. For a given drop volume, more work is needed to spread higher surface tension liquids than lower surface tension ones. Similarly, larger drops require more energy to spread than smaller ones. The work of wetting estimated here for sessile drops is comparable to energies from other wetting geometries, such as capillary bridge and sphere tensiometry. This work provides theoretical support for the experimental observation that interactions at the contact line dominate the wetting behavior of spreading sessile drops.

2829. Alexander, C.S., M.C. Branch, M. Strobel, M. Ulsh, N. Sullivan, and T.Vian, “Application of ribbon burners to the flame treatment of polypropylene films,” Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 34, 696-713, (Dec 2008).

This article focuses on recent advances in the understanding of industrial gas burners. Ribbon burners have been chosen as the focus of the review because of the advantages presented by the burner arrangement and burner performance. The ribbon burner configuration, because of its ability to provide large flame surface and flame stabilization, has a large range of stability as flow rate, equivalence ratio and reactant gas composition are varied. Discussed in detail is the application of ribbon burners in the surface modification, or flame treatment, of polymer films to increase the wettability of a polymer surface. Optimum treatment requires a spatially homogeneous post-flame reaction zone even with burners up to 3 m in length. For methane/air flames, the optimum equivalence ratio is near 0.93 where the active oxidizing-species concentration near the surface is a maximum. Chemical kinetic models of the impinging flame and surface oxidation chemistry of a polymer film are also discussed. The model predictions are in good qualitative agreement with the available understanding of the flame variables affecting surface treatment and the expected oxidized species on the polymer surface.

2555. Pykonen, M., H. Sundqvist, J. Jarnstrom, O.-V. Kaukoniemi, and M. Tuominen, “Effects of atmospheric plasma activation on surface properties of pigment-coated and surface-sized papers,” Applied Surface Science, 255, 3217-3229, (Dec 2008).

Pigment-coated, surface-sized, and surface-sized copy papers were treated with conventional corona, experimental pilot-scale plasma and laboratory-scale plasma. All the treatments increased the surface energy and oxidized the surface. The changes in the surface chemistry depended on treatment time and composition of the substrate surface. It seems that plasma especially oxidizes the long polymer chains, such as surfactants and other paper chemicals, on the surface of the paper. The ToF-SIMS distribution maps indicated that the pilot-scale treatment led to an uneven CO+ group distribution, whereas laboratory scale treatment gave a more even distribution of CO+ groups. In addition to chemical changes, topographical changes due to plasma treatment were detected. The RMS roughness increased for pigment-coated paper, whereas plasma treatment induced small nodules between the paper pigment particles with pigmented and surface-sized paper. The increase in roughness was also found to increase the wettability. This serves as a demonstration of roughness-induced increase of surface energy of the samples.

2551. Pappas, D.D., A.A. Bujanda, J.A. Orlicki, and R.E. Jensen, “Chemical and morphological modification of polymers under a helium-oxygen dielectric barrier discharge,” Surface and Coatings Technology, 203, 830-834, (Dec 2008).

In this work, the surface modifications of various polymer films due to helium–oxygen dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) exposure operating under atmospheric pressure are reported. The polymer films studied include ultra high molecular weight polyethylene, polyamide, polytetrafluoroethylene and polyimide. Experimental results reveal increased hydrophilicity and surface energy of the plasma exposed polymers. This is attributed to the presence of oxygen containing groups grafted onto the surface during plasma treatment, as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) data show the appearance of micro depressions, the size of which depends on the chemical structure and the treatment time, suggesting that mild etching occurs in a predicted fashion. Most importantly, this uniform modification occurs within a few seconds of exposure, time comparable to continuous on-line industrial processing.

2172. Bishop, C.A., “Optimising plasma treatment,”, Dec 2008.

1921. Dillingham, R.G., B.R. Oakley, and D. Gilpin, “Wetting measurements for identification of specific functional groups responsible for adhesion,” J. Adhesion, 84, 1007-1022, (Dec 2008).

The relationship between adhesion and surface energy is well established for systems where specific chemical interactions are unlikely, such as pressure sensitive adhesives. However, the relationship of wetting to adhesion in chemically reactive systems is not well understood. This work used atmospheric pressure plasma treatment in air of high density polyethylene to obtain surfaces with a range of electron donor and acceptor character prior to bonding with an amine cured epoxy. Adhesion correlated strongly with the electron donating character of surface energy, and the likely functional groups responsible for this adhesion were amines created by the plasma treatment process. These results indicate that wetting measurements may be useful in detecting the specific chemical interactions important to adhesion in reactive systems.

1890. Leroux, F., C. Compagne, A. Perwuelz, and L. Gengembre, “Polypropylene film chemical and physical modifications by dielectric barrier discharge plasma treatment at atmospheric pressure,” J. Colloid and Interface Science, 328, 412-420, (Dec 2008).

Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) technologies have been used to treat a polypropylene film. Various parameters such as treatment speed or electrical power were changed in order to determine the treatment power impact at the polypropylene surface. Indeed, all the treatments were performed using ambient air as gas to oxidize the polypropylene surface. This oxidation level and the surface modifications during the ageing were studied by a wetting method and by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Moreover polypropylene film surface topography was analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) in order to observe the surface roughness modifications. These topographic modifications were correlated to the surface oxidation by measuring with a lateral force microscope (LFM) the surface heterogeneity. The low ageing effects and the surface reorganization are discussed.

2531. Vesel, A., I. Junkar, U. Cvelbar, J. Kovac, and M. Mozetic, “Surface modification of polyester by oxygen- and nitrogen-plasma treatment,” Surface and Interface Analysis, 40, 1444-1453, (Nov 2008).

In this paper, we present a study on the surface modification of polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) polymer by plasma treatment. The samples were treated by nitrogen and oxygen plasma for different time periods between 3 and 90 s. The plasma was created by a radio frequency (RF) generator. The gas pressure was fixed at 75 Pa and the discharge power was set to 200 W. The samples were treated in the glow region, where the electrons temperature was about 4 eV, the positive ions density was about 2 × 1015 m−3, and the neutral atom density was about 4 × 1021 m−3 for oxygen and 1 × 1021 m−3 for nitrogen. The changes in surface morphology were observed by using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Surface wettability was determined by water contact angle measurements while the chemical composition of the surface was analyzed using XPS. The stability of functional groups on the polymer surface treated with plasma was monitored by XPS and wettability measurements in different time intervals. The oxygen-plasma-treated samples showed much more pronounced changes in the surface topography compared to those treated by nitrogen plasma. The contact angle of a water drop decreased from 75° for the untreated sample to 20° for oxygen and 25° for nitrogen-plasma-treated samples for 3 s. It kept decreasing with treatment time for both plasmas and reached about 10° for nitrogen plasma after 1 min of plasma treatment. For oxygen plasma, however, the contact angle kept decreasing even after a minute of plasma treatment and eventually fell below a few degrees. We found that the water contact angle increased linearly with the O/C ratio or N/C ratio in the case of oxygen or nitrogen plasma, respectively. Ageing effects of the plasma-treated surface were more pronounced in the first 3 days; however, the surface hydrophilicity was rather stable later. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

2226. Gatenby, A., “CSC Scientific blog: Surface tension and interfacial tension,”, Nov 2008.

2163. Muller, M., and C. Oehr, “Surface tensions of polymers,”, Nov 2008.


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