Harmonized codes

Question: It would be helpful to have one consolidated list Harmonized Codes for all the products you sell.

Answer: I agree. Please keep in mind that despite being called the “Harmonized Tariff Schedule” – which implies uniformity over different countries – there will be differences, notably in the suffixes, in some countries. Anyway, here goes:

ACCU DYNE TEST Marker Pens: 9027.80.8090 (Other instruments and apparatus); 2942.00.5000 (Other organic compounds); or 9608.20.0000 (Felt tipped and other porous-tipped pens and markers).
ACCU DYNE TEST Surface Tension Test Fluids: 2942.00.5000 (Other organic compounds).
ACCU COAT Applicators: 9027.80.8090 (Other instruments and apparatus).
Books: 4901.99.0050 (Technical, scientific, and professional books).
Dispenser bottles: 3923.30.0000 (Carboys, bottles, flasks, and similar articles).
Packaging bottles: 3923.30.0000 (Carboys, bottles, flasks, and similar articles).
Cotton swabs: 9018.19.4000 (Apparatus for functional exploratory examination).
Drawdown platforms: 9027.80.8090 (Other instruments and apparatus).
Durometers: 9024.80.0000 (Other machines and appliances for testing hardness).
Metering rods: 9027.80.8090 (Other instruments and apparatus).
Spare parts, stroboscopes: 9029.90.6000 (Stroboscope parts and accessories).
Spare parts, tachometers: 9029.90.8040 (Parts and accessories of tachometers).
Spare parts, tensiometers: 9027.80.8090 (Diagnostic instruments and apparatus).
Stopwatches: 9027.80.8090 (Other instruments and apparatus).
Stroboscopes: 9029.20.6000 (Stroboscopes).
Tachometers: 9029.20.4080 (Other speedometers and tachometers).
Tensiometers: 9027.80.8090 (Other instruments and apparatus).
Treater sleeves: 3917.32.0050 (Tubes, pipes, and hoses, other); or 4009.11.0000 (Tubes, pipes and hoses, of vulcanized rubber, except hard rubber, not reinforced/otherwise combined with other materials, without fittings).
Viscosity cups: 9027.80.8090 (Other instruments and apparatus).
Viscosity oils: 3822.00.0002 (Diagnostic or laboratory reagents).
Wet film gauges: 9027.80.8090 (Other instruments and apparatus).

Cleaning silicone treater sleeves

Question: My customer has been cleaning their treater sleeves using water and a clean cloth, and they have noted that after cleaning they need to re-adjust many of their operating parameters, including power and treater gap. Is there a problem with this cleaning method? Are there better ones?

Answer: While silicone is inherently very hydrophobic, I can see that after service in a corona treater it may become more hydrophilic, leading to water adsorption into the elastomer. This could affect the dielectric properties of the silicone sleeve, at least until the adsorbed moisture is driven out by the heat generated in the treater. This could certainly create a need to adjust machine settings.

Our recommended cleaning method is to use Lysol Basin Tub & Tile Cleaner rather than water. Be sure any residue from the cleaner is thoroughly removed from the sleeve’s surface, or there may be an effect on machine performance.

An alternate method would be to use 70% or 99% isopropyl alcohol (2-propanol). Based on data from a Balseal Engineering report(1), chemical compatibility between silicone elastomers and isopropyl alcohol is good, though it is possible some color fading may occur(2).

References:

1) http://www.balseal.com:8080/sites/default/files/tr60d_020707133101.pdf.

2) Xu, Z.W., J. Jiang, X.X. Zhang, G.B. Liang, and Y. Li, PubMed, 46 (2011), 300-303.

Low dyne level readings on epoxy coated steel

Question: We recently did a dyne test on epoxy-coated steel wire. The lowest level test marker we had was 34 dynes/cm, and it beaded up instantly. Your polymer charts state that epoxies should run between about 42 and 52 dynes/cm. What gives?

Answer: The polymer chart for epoxies (http://www.accudynetest.com/polymer_surface_data/epoxy.pdf) shows data for unmodified epoxy resins. In many cases, these resins are modified to increase hydrophobic properties, making them more weather-resistant. These epoxy blends, once cured, will have lower surface energies than unmodified epoxies. There is a very good chance that the resin you are using is modified with a low energy additive. I’ll briefly discuss two examples pulled from the literature.

a) Epoxy modified with fluorinated poly (aryl ether ketone) (PETK): PETK, like other fluorinated polymers, has a very low surface energy. A study published in 2010(1) demonstrated that higher concentrations of PETK did, in fact, significantly reduce the surface energy of the epoxy blend. One interesting result from this study was that resins cured at low temperatures (30° C) demonstrated markedly greater reductions in surface energy than did those cured at higher temperatures (80° C). The reason for this is that at the higher cure temperature, phase separation is less pronounced because cross-linking occurred more rapidly, impeding the ability of the PETK to bloom to the surface.

b) Epoxy modified with polysiloxane showed similar results(2). For example, for material processed in a silicone mold, unmodified epoxy showed a contact angle with water of 68° (roughly 39 dynes/cm), whereas blends containing polysiloxane showed contact angles of up to nearly 100° (roughly 28 dynes/cm). Undoubtedly the cure in a silicone mold also influenced both readings, as surface-to-surface transfer within the mold would result in traces of silicone – another low energy solid – on the surface of the cured resin.

Please keep in mind that, in general, lower surface energy components will tend to move towards the surface during curing, so the decrease in surface energy can be quite dramatic even at low concentrations of additives.

References:

1) W. Brostow, M. Dutta, and P. Rusek, “Modified epoxy coatings on mild steel: Tribology and surface energy,” European Polymer J., 46 (2010), 2181-2189.

2) Z.-x. Huang, Y. Huang, and Y.-z. Yu, “Modification of epoxy resin with polysiloxane bearing pendant quarternary ammonium groups,” Chinese J. of Polymer Science, 20 (2002), 537-541.